We use satellite (MODIS) observations of aerosol optical depths (AODs) over the North Pacific, together with surface aerosol measurements at a network of remote U.S. sites (IMPROVE), to improve understanding of the transpacific transport of Asian aerosol pollution and assess the ability of a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem CTM) to quantify Asian aerosol enhancements in U.S. surface air. The MODIS observations show the strongest transpacific transport occurring in spring at 40–55°N. This transport in the model takes place mainly in the lower free troposphere (900–700 hPa) because of scavenging during transport either in the boundary layer or during lifting to the upper troposphere. The preferential altitude of aerosol transpacific transport results in direct impact on the elevated terrain of the NW United States. Sulfate observations in the NW United States in spring 2001 show higher concentrations on the days of model-predicted maximum Asian influence (1.04 μg m−3) than seasonal mean values (0.69 μg m−3). No such Asian enhancements are observed for nitrate or for organic carbon (OC) aerosol. Distinct Asian sulfate episodes correlated with dust events are observed in the NW United States and simulated with the model. The mean Asian pollution enhancement in that region in spring is 0.16 μg m−3 with a 50% estimated uncertainty. This is higher than the estimated natural concentration of 0.09 μg m−3 presently used as objective for regulation of visibility in U.S. wilderness areas.