SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Allen, M. R., and W. J. Ingram (2002), Constraints on future changes in climate and the hydrological cycle, Nature, 419, 224232.
  • Bárdossy, A., and E. J. Plate (1992), Space-time model of daily rainfall using atmospheric circulation patterns, Water Resour. Res., 28, 12471259.
  • Bárdossy, A., L. Duckstein, and I. Bogardi (1995), Fuzzy rule-based classification of atmospheric circulation patterns, Int. J. Climatol., 15, 10871097.
  • Bárdossy, A., J. Stehlík, and H.-J. Caspary (2002), Automated objective classification of daily circulation patterns for precipitation and temperature downscaling based on optimized fuzzy rules, Clim. Res., 23, 1122.
  • Barnett, T., and R. Preisendorfer (1987), Origins and levels of monthly and seasonal forecase skill for United States surface air temperatures determined by canonical correlation analysis, Mon. Weather Rev., 115, 18251850.
  • Beck, A., B. Ahrens, and K. Stadlbacher (2004), Impact of nesting strategies on precipitation forecasting in dynamical downscaling of reanalysis data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L19101, doi:10.1029/2004GL020115.
  • Charles, S. P., B. C. Bates, P. H. Whetton, and J. P. Hughes (1999), Validation of downscaling models for changed climate conditions: Case study of southwestern Australia, Clim. Res., 12, 114.
  • Christensen, J. H., and O. B. Christensen (2003), Severe summertime flooding in Europe, Nature, 421, 805806.
  • Christensen, J. H., O. B. Christensen, P. Lopez, E. Van Meljgaard, and M. Botzet (1996), The HIRHAM4 regional atmospheric climate model, Sci. Rep. 96-4, Dan. Meteorol. Inst., Copenhagen.
  • Christensen, J. H., T. R. Carter, and M. Rummukainen (2007), Evaluating the performance and utility of regional climate models: The PRUDENCE project, Clim. Change, in press.
  • Christensen, O. B. (1999), Relaxation of soil variables in a regional climate model, Tellus, Ser. A, 51, 674685.
  • Christensen, O. B., and J. H. Christensen (2004), Intensification of extreme European summer precipitation in a warmer climate, Global Planet. Change, 44, 107117.
  • Christensen, O. B., J. H. Christensen, B. Machenhauer, and M. Botzet (2001), Very high-resolution regional climate simulations over Scandinavia—Present climate, J. Clim., 11, 32043229.
  • Cohen, S. J. (1990), Bringing the global warming issue close to home: The challenge of regional impact studies, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 71, 520526.
  • Denis, B., R. Laprise, and D. Caya (2003), Sensitivity of a regional climate model to the resolution of the lateral boundary conditions, Clim. Dyn., 20, 107126.
  • Déqué, M., et al. (2005), Global high resolution versus Limited Area Model climate change projections over Europe: Quantifying confidence level from PRUDENCE results, Clim. Dyn., 25, 653670.
  • Frei, C., and C. Schär (1998), A precipitation climatology of the Alps from high-resolution rain-gauge observations, Int. J. Climatol., 18, 873900.
  • Frei, C., C. Schär, D. Lüthi, and H. C. Davies (1998), Heavy precipitation processes in a warmer climate, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 14311434.
  • Frei, C., J. H. Christensen, M. Deque, D. Jacob, R. G. Jones, and P. L. Vidale (2003), Daily precipitation statistics in regional climate models: Evaluation and intercomparison for the European Alps, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D3), 4124, doi:10.1029/2002JD002287.
  • Frei, C., R. Schöll, S. Fukutome, J. Schmidli, and P. L. Vidale (2006), Future change of precipitation extremes in Europe: Intercomparison of scenarios from regional climate models, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D06105, doi:10.1029/2005JD005965.
  • Gibson, J. K., P. Kallberg, S. Uppala, A. Hernandey, A. Nomura, and E. Serano (1999), ERA-15 description (version 2), Reanal. Proj. Rep. Ser., 1, 74 pp., Eur. Cent. for Med.-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, U. K.
  • Giorgi, F., B. Hewitson, J. Christensen, C. Fu, R. Jones, M. Hulme, L. Mearns, H. Von Storch, and P. Whetton (2001), Regional climate information—Evaluation and projections, in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, edited by J. T. Houghton et al., pp. 583638, Cambridge Univ. Press, New York.
  • Goodess, C. M. (2003), Statistical and regional dynamical downscaling of extremes for European regions: STARDEX, Eggs, 6, 2529.
  • Goodess, C. M., and J. P. Palutikof (1998), Development of daily rainfall scenarios for southeast Spain using a circulation-type approach to downscaling, Int. J. Climatol., 18, 10511083.
  • Goodess, C. M., et al. (2007), An intercomparison of statistical downscaling methods for Europe and European regions: Assessing their performance with respect to extreme temperature and precipitation events, Clim. Change, in press.
  • Gordon, C., C. Cooper, C. A. Senior, H. Banks, H. M. Gregory, T. C. Johns, J. F. B. Mitchell, and R. A. Wood (2000), The simulation of SST, sea ice extent and ocean heat transports in a version of the Hadley Centre coupled model without flux adjustments, Clim. Dyn., 16, 147168.
  • Hay, L. E., and M. P. Clark (2003), Use of statistically and dynamically downscaled atmospheric model output for hydrologic simulations in three mountainous basins in the western United States, J. Hydrol., 282, 5675.
  • Haylock, M. R., G. C. Cawley, C. Harpham, R. L. Wilby, and C. M. Goodess (2006), Downscaling heavy precipitation over the UK: A comparison of dynamical and statistical methods and their future scenarios, Int. J. Climatol., 26, 13971415.
  • Hellström, C., D. Chen, C. Achberger, and J. Räisänen (2001), Comparison of climate change scenarios for Sweden based on statistical and dynamical downscaling of monthly precipitation, Clim. Res., 19, 4555.
  • Johns, T. C., et al. (2003), Anthropogenic climate change for 1860 to 2100 simulated with the HadCM3 model under updated emission scenarios, Clim. Dyn., 20, 583612.
  • Jones, R. G., J. M. Murphy, and M. Noguer (1995), Simulation of climate change over Europe using a nested regional climate model. I: Assessment of control climate, including sensitivity to location of lateral boundaries, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 121, 14131449.
  • Jones, R. G., J. M. Murphy, M. Noguer, and A. B. Keen (1997), Simulation of climate change over Europe using a nested regional climate model. II: Comparison of driving and regional model responses to a doubling of carbon dioxide, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 123, 265292.
  • Jones, R. G., M. Noguer, D. C. Hassell, D. Hudson, S. S. Wilson, G. J. Jenkins, and J. F. B. Mitchell (2004), Generating high resolution climate change scenarios using PRECIS, technical report, 35 pp., Hadley Cent., Met Off., Exeter, U. K.
  • Källén, E. (1996), Hirlam documentation manual, system 2.5, technical report, Swed. Meteorol. and Hydrol. Inst., Norrköping, Sweden.
  • Kalnay, E., et al. (1996), The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis project, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 437471.
  • Kidson, J. W., and C. S. Thompson (1998), A comparison of statistical and model-based downscaling techniques for estimating local climate variations, J. Clim., 11, 735753.
  • Kistler, R., et al. (2001), The NCEP-NCAR 50-year reanalysis: Monthly means CD-ROM and documentation, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 82, 247267.
  • Lüthi, D., A. Cress, H. C. Davies, C. Frei, and C. Schär (1996), Interannual variability and regional climate simulations, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 53, 185209.
  • Majewski, D. (1991), The Europa Modell of the Deutscher Wetterdienst, paper presented at ECMWF Seminar on Numerical Methods in Atmospheric Models, Eur. Cent. for Med.-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, U. K.
  • Mearns, L. O., C. Rosenzweig, and R. Goldberg (1997), Mean and variance change in climate scenarios: Methods, agricultural applications, and measures of uncertainty, Clim. Change, 35, 367396.
  • Mearns, L. O., I. Bogardi, F. Giorgi, I. Matyasovszky, and M. Palecki (1999), Comparison of climate change scenarios generated from regional climate model experiments and statistical downscaling, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 66036621.
  • Mearns, L. O., F. Giorgi, P. Whetton, D. Pabon, M. Hulme, and M. Lal (2003), Guidelines for use of climate scenarios developed from regional climate model experiments, technical report, Data Distrib. Cent., Intergovt. Panel on Clim. Change, Norwich, U. K.
  • Murphy, J. (1999), An evaluation of statistical and dynamical techniques for downscaling local climate, J. Clim., 12, 22562284.
  • Murphy, J. (2000), Predictions of climate change over Europe using statistical and dynamical downscaling techniques, Int. J. Climatol., 20, 489501.
  • Nakicenovic, N., et al. (2000), Special Report on Emission Scenarios, 599 pp., Cambridge Univ. Press, New York.
  • Noguer, M., R. Jones, and J. Murphy (1998), Sources of systematic errors in the climatology of a regional climate model over Europe, Clim. Dyn., 14, 691712.
  • Osborn, T. J., and M. Hulme (1997), Development of a relationship between station and grid-box rainday frequencies for climate model evaluation, J. Clim., 10, 18851908.
  • Pope, V. D., M. L. Gallani, P. R. Rowntree, and R. A. Stratton (2000), The impact of new physical parametrizations in the Hadley Centre climate model: HadAM3, Clim. Dyn., 16, 123146.
  • Reid, P. A., P. D. Jones, O. Brown, C. M. Goodess, and T. D. Davies (2001), Assessments of the reliabiliy of NCEP circulation data and relationships with surface climate by direct comparisons with station based data, Clim. Res., 17, 247261.
  • Roeckner, E., et al. (1996), The atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM-4: Model description and simulation of present-day climate, Tech. Rep. 218, Max-Planck Inst. für Meteorol., Hamburg, Germany.
  • Schär, C., T. D. Davies, C. Frei, H. Wanner, M. Widmann, M. Wild, and H. C. Davies (1998), Current Alpine climate, in A View From the Alps: Regional Perspectives on Climate Change, edited by P. Cebon et al., pp. 2172, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Schär, C., P. L. Vidale, D. Lüthi, C. Frei, C. Haberli, M. A. Liniger, and C. Appenzeller (2004), The role of increasing temperature variability in European summer heatwaves, Nature, 427, 332336.
  • Schmidli, J., and C. Frei (2005), Trends of heavy precipitation and wet and dry spells in Switzerland during the 20th century, Int. J. Climatol., 25, 753771.
  • Schmidli, J., C. Frei, and P. L. Vidale (2006), Downscaling from GCM precipitation: A benchmark for dynamical and statistical downscaling methods, Int. J. Climatol., 26, 679689.
  • Seneviratne, S. I., J. S. Pal, E. A. B. Eltahir, and C. Schär (2002), Summer dryness in a warmer climate: A process study with a regional climate model, Clim. Dyn., 20, 6985.
  • Stehlík, J., and A. Bárdossy (2002), Multivariate stochastic downscaling model for generating daily precipitation series based on atmospheric circulation, J. Hydrol., 256, 120141.
  • Trenberth, K. E., A. Dai, R. M. Rasmussen, and D. B. Parsons (2003), The changing character of precipitation, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 84, 12051217.
  • van den Hurk, B., et al. (2005), Soil control on runoff response to climate change in regional climate model simulations, J. Clim., 18, 35363551.
  • Vidale, P. L., D. Lüthi, C. Frei, S. I. Seneviratne, and C. Schär (2003), Predictability and uncertainty in a regional climate model, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D18), 4586, doi:10.1029/2002JD002810.
  • Vidale, P. L., D. Lüthi, R. Wegmann, and C. Schär (2007), Variability of European climate in a heterogeneous multi-model ensemble, Clim. Change, in press.
  • von Storch, H. (1999), On the use of “inflation” in statistical downscaling, J. Clim., 12, 35053506.
  • von Storch, H., E. Zorita, and U. Cubasch (1993), Downscaling of global climate change estimates to regional scales: An application to Iberian rainfall in wintertime, J. Clim., 6, 11611171.
  • Wetherald, R. T., and S. Manabe (1995), The mechanisms of summer dryness induced by greenhouse warming, J. Clim., 8, 30963108.
  • Widmann, M. L., C. S. Bretherton, and E. P. Salathé Jr. (2003), Statistical precipitation downscaling over the northwestern United States using numerically simulated precipitation as a predictor, J. Clim., 16, 799816.
  • Wilby, R. L., and T. M. L. Wigley (2000), Precipitation predictors for downscaling: Observed and General Circulation Model relationships, Int. J. Climatol., 20, 641661.
  • Wilby, R. L., L. E. Hay, W. J. Gutowski, R. W. Arritt, E. S. Tackle, G. H. Leavesley, and M. Clark (2000), Hydrological responses to dynamically and statistically downscaled general circulation model output, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 11991202.
  • Wilby, R. L., S. P. Charles, E. Zorita, B. Timbal, P. Whetton, and L. O. Mearns (2004), Guidelines for use of climate scenarios developed from statistical downscaling methods, technical report, Data Distrib. Cent., Intergovt. Panel on Clim. Change, Norwich, U. K.
  • Wilks, D. S., and R. L. Wilby (1999), The weather generation game: A review of stochastic weather models, Prog. Phys. Geogr., 23, 329357.
  • Wood, A. W., L. R. Leung, V. Sridhar, and D. P. Lettenmaier (2004), Hydrologic implications of dynamical and statistical approaches to downscaling climate model outputs, Clim. Change, 62, 189216.