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 The asymptotic expressions for the total field excited by a plane wave obliquely incident on a wedge with anisotropic impedance faces are represented in the framework of the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction. The problem of decoupling the functional difference equations is solved by applying the perturbation technique on the basis of two analytical solutions: normal incidence and grazing to the edge incidence. The numerical results agree well with those presented in published papers and provide a uniform and continuous behavior of the field dependent upon the skewness of the incident wave outside the wedge region.
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 Among many electromagnetic (EM) issues (radiation, scattering, and propagation), the wedge-shaped objects and their special case, the half plane, have been always acted as classic forms and structures of these types of issues, and they are most important objects in the study of EM problems. In recent years, with increasing interest in anisotropic composites, considerable attention has been drawn to the study of the electromagnetic scattering properties of surfaces coated with these materials. The anisotropic impedance boundary conditions [Senior and Volakis, 1991] are the simplest and most effective way to describe these problems. While in the case of skew incidence, so far, there do not exist good solutions to the difference equations generated by the boundary conditions in Maliuzhinets' approach [Maliuzhinets, 1958]. The main difficulty is the lack of techniques to solve the four coupled functional difference equations [Syed and Volakis, 1995]. To the authors' knowledge, those that can be solved analytically are limited to specific face impedances or geometrical configurations, [Vaccaro, 1980; Senior and Volakis, 1986; Rojas, 1988; Lyalinov, 1994; Lyalinov and Zhu, 1999, 2003; Manara et al., 1996; Manara and Nepa, 2000; Bernard, 1987, 1998]. Pelosi et al.  has given an asymptotic solution using a perturbation technique based on the solution for normal incident. However, this asymptotic solution is valid only in the region deviating at most 30° from normal incidence. It is worth noting that in the case of very skew incidence, few researches have been carried out to provide a satisfactory solution.
 This paper analyzes the electromagnetic scattering of a plane wave obliquely incident on a wedge of an arbitrary open angle with anisotropic impedance faces, in which the impedance tensor has its principal anisotropy axes along the directions parallel and perpendicular to the edge. As indicated by Pelosi et al. , first, the first-order anisotropic impedance boundary conditions are introduced to prescribe the wedge faces, and then followed the well-known Sommerfeld-Maliuzhinets method, the longitudinal components of the total fields are represented as Sommerfeld spectral integrals. Next, the boundary conditions are imposed to yield a group of functional difference equations. The approximate integral expressions of the spectral functions are then determined by applying the perturbation technique which is based on two analytical solutions (normal incidence [Maliuzhinets, 1958] and grazing to the edge incidence [Lyalinov and Zhu, 1999]) to decoupling the functional difference equations. Then by the residue theorem, the asymptotic evaluation of the spectral integrals is performed in the framework of the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD), with the high-frequency representation for the fields diffracted by anisotropic impedance wedge valid at close to normal incidence and almost grazing to the edge incidence. Finally, some examples of the numerical results are given and compared with those obtained also by the perturbation method [Pelosi et al., 1998] and the analytical solutions [Manara and Nepa, 2000] to demonstrate the uniform and continuous behavior of the fields in the absence of the wedge region.
 Though this work does not exactly solve the whole problem because of the limitation of the perturbation technique, the solution given here includes all the possible cases which can utilize the perturbation technique to derive the diffraction field for an anisotropic impedance wedge of an arbitrary open angle at skew incident, and should be at least as a practical way to obtain a comparatively good approximation to the field behavior at the general case of skew incidence, and comparison with other pure numerical or hybrid methods.
2. Formulation of the Problem
 The problem to be analyzed is the EM scattering by a wedge with impedance faces as shown in Figure 1. The wedge has its edge along z axis of a cylindrical reference frame. nπ refers to the exterior wedge angle (in particular, n = 1 corresponding to a two-part plane with arbitrary impedance surfaces, n = 3/2 corresponding to an exterior right-angled wedge, and n = 2 corresponding to a half plane). An arbitrary polarization harmonic plane wave impinges on the edge from the direction determined by the angles β0 and ϕ0. The angle β0 is a measure of the incident skewness with respect to the edge of the wedge (expressly, β0 = π/2 corresponding to normal incidence and β0 = 0 corresponding to grazing to the edge incidence). The angle ϕ0 and ϕ are measured from the ϕ = 0 face. The ISB and RSB correspond to the incident shadow boundary and the reflecting shadow boundary, respectively. Suppressing the time dependence exp(jωt), the longitudinal components of the incident fields can be represented as
 In the cylindrical reference frame, we consider the impedance tensor of the wedge surface has its principal anisotropy axes along directions parallel and perpendicular to the edge, the surface impedance is in the form by the tensors as , with to meet the restriction of the passive anisotropic impedance. By the first-order Impedance Boundary Conditions (IBCs) [Senior and Volakis, 1991]: × ( × ) = −s ( × ), where for ϕ = 0 face = , and for ϕ = nπ face = −, the anisotropic impedance boundary conditions for each wedge face can be expressed in the cylindrical coordinate as
 According to the Maxwell equations, all the field components transverse to the z axis can be represented in terms of their longitudinal ones as follows
 Rewriting equation (2) in terms of the longitudinal field components Ez and ηHz in (3), two groups of boundary conditions for corresponding faces of the third kind are obtained
 We seek solutions which satisfy the scalar Helmholtz equation (∇t2 + k2 sin2 β0) [Ez, η Hz]T = 0 in the region outside the wedge, the boundary condition equations (4), the Meixner conditions at the edge ρ = 0, and the radiation conditions at infinity. A proper representation of the solution is the superposition of plane waves in the form of Sommerfeld integrals as follows
where γ is the Sommerfeld double loop contour (Figure 2). The spectral functions Se (α) and Sh (α) are analytical inside the strip ∣Re[α]∣ ≤ nπ/2 in order to satisfy the radiation condition, except for one first-order pole at α = nπ/2 − ϕ0, whose residue just reproduces the incident field, and when ∣Im[α]∣ → ∞, Se (α) = O [exp (Im α)] and Sh (α) = O [exp (Im α)]. The problem then reduces to the key step of determining the spectral functions.
3. Determination of the Spectral Functions
 As apparent, Ez and Hz are coupled in the boundary condition equations (4), each will depends on the other, we cannot derive the spectral functions Se (α) and Sh (α) directly, so we resort to the perturbation technique based on two special incidences with the analytical solutions: normal incidence and grazing to the edge incidence.
3.1. Almost Normal Incidence
 In this case we directly substitute the Sommerfeld integral representations of Ez and ηHz in (5) into the boundary condition (4), and integrate by part to obtain a set of coupled integral equations
where kt = ksin β0, sin θh0,n = sin β0 Zρρ0,n/η, sin θe0,n = sin β0 η/Zzz0,n.
 According to the Maliuzhinets' theorem, the necessary and sufficient condition to satisfy (6) is that the integrands must be even functions of α. A mathematic description is
It is clear that as β0 → π/2, the right side of (7) goes to zero, Ez and Hz would be decoupled. For this type of homogeneous equations, Maliuzhinets  has given a detailed solution. Hence, to approximately solve the inhomogeneous equations (7), we can introduce the perturbation method, based on Maliuzhinets' solution with respect to β0 close to π/2, to spread the spectral functions Se,h (α) as the cos β0 series
where Ψe,h (α) = Ψe,h (α, θe,h0, θe,hn) are the special functions defined by Maliuzhinets , which are analytical in the strip ∣Reα∣ ≤ nπ/2 and also the partial solutions of the corresponding homogeneous equations of (7).
is a meromorphic function with a single pole α = nπ/2 − ϕ0 in [0, nπ] and well known from Sommerfeld's solutions for a perfectly conducting wedge, whose residue just accounts for the incident field.
 Substituting (8) into (7), and equating the terms of the same power of cos β0, we obtain the recurrent equations with constant coefficients
Letting ξe,h−1 (α) = 0, the leading term, which satisfies the homogeneous equations (10), is
Then substituting ξe,h0 (α) into the recurrent equations (10), the other order terms can be obtained by applying the modified Fourier transformation [Thuzhilin, 1973; Bernard, 1987] with integration along the imaginary axis.
 The first-order term takes the form
where σj (t, α) = .
 It is worth observing that in (11), ξe0 (α) and ξh0 (α) are proportional to Uei and Uhi, respectively. However, in (12), ξe1 (α) and ξh1 (α) are proportional to Uhi andUei, respectively. This just implies that in the case of skew incidence, the longitudinal components of the total fields will consist of two parts, the copolar part (the contribution of the even-order terms) and the cross-polar part (the contribution of the odd-order terms).
 For the case of small deviation from normal incidence (∣cos β0∣ ≪ 1), the spectral function Se,h (α) can be approximated by the first two leading terms of the cos β0 series as
where Πe,h (α) = Ψe,h (α) [ξe,h0 (α) + ξe,h1 (α) cos β0 + O (cos2 β0)]
3.2. Almost Grazing to the Edge Incidence
 However, in this case we have to first transform the boundary condition (4) as follows to acquire the coupled Maliuzhinets' equations.
 Dividing the equations (18) by sin β0 and introducing thereafter a new parameter Θ, such that sin Θ = jcos β0/sin β0, and cos Θ = 1/sin β0, where Θ∈ [0, j∞), β0 ∈ [0, π/2]. Equations (18) then reduce to the form
where sin σ0,n = A10,n.
Lyalinov and Zhu  had solved these equations by introducing a newly defined meromorphic function when the right side of equations (19) turns to zero. Followed his method, we introduce two new unknown spectral functions ζP (α) and ζT (α) with
 In (22) we find that when β0 → 0, sin (α ± Θ) → ∞, the right side of (22) goes to zero. So we can also introduce the perturbation technique when the incident wave is almost grazing to the edge to spread the ζP,T (α) as
 Substituting (23) into (22), and equating the terms of the same power of sin β0, we obtain the recurrent equations with constant coefficients
 Letting ζP,T−1 (α) = 0, the leading term, which is also the solution of (22) with right side of it equal to zero, is
 Then substituting ζP,T0 (α) into the recurrent equations (24), the other-order terms can be obtained by applying the modified Fourier transformation with integration along the imaginary axis.
 The first-order term takes the form as
 In the same way, the spectral functions ζP,T (α) can be approximated by their first two leading terms of sin β0 series as
 Till now we have obtained the approximate expressions of the new spectral functions ζP (α) and ζT (α), when sin β0 ≪ 1, and by the relation ηHz = (P + jT)/2, Ez = (jP + T)/2, we can finally acquire the spectral function Se,h (α) = Πe,h (α) (α) as in (13), but with
 From the expressions of Πe,h (α), ζP,T0 (α) and ζP,T1 (α), we also found that the spectral functions Se,h (α) are proportional to Uei and Uhi, which again shows that at skew incidence, the cross-polar components of the total fields will be produced by the impedance wedge.
4. UTD Solution
 Once obtaining the spectral functions, then by the residue theorem, the Sommerfeld integration can be deformed into the collective contribution of (1) the residues of the poles of Se,h (α), which account for the geometrical optic (GO) field (real poles' contribution due to (α)) and the surface wave field (complex poles' contribution due to Ψe,h (α) or ΦP,T (α)), the latter will not be discussed here because of its minor contribution when talking about the fields in the far zone, and (2) two steepest descent path (SDP) integrals through the saddle points (±π) (Figure 2), which account for the diffraction field by the edge.
 So the solution can be represented as
 In this paper, we talk about the case that only the ϕ = 0 face is illuminated, viz. 0 ≤ ϕ0 ≤ nπ − π. By the trigonometric identical transformation, the meromorphic function (α) can be changed into the other form as
 Evidently, the functions (α + nπ/2 − ϕ) have two real poles at α1 = ϕ − ϕ0 and α2 = ϕ + ϕ0, whose residues just reproduce the incident field and the reflected field by ϕ = 0 face, respectively, (A detailed description of real poles for both wedge faces are illuminated and only the ϕ = nπ face is illuminated has been given by Yuan and Zhu ). The geometrical optic fields are given by the results of residues as
where Ree, Reh, Rhe, Rhh are the tensor reflected coefficients derived from the residues with
The shadow boundaries appear at ϕ = π ± ϕ0. Applying the modified Pauli-Clemmow's SDP method, the asymptotic solution of the diffraction fields can be finally obtained. An asymptotic UTD solution is in the form as
where F(x) = j2 exp (jx) dt is the UTD transition function [Kouyoumjian and Pathak, 1974], which can eliminate the discontinuity of geometrical optical fields at the shadow boundaries.
 Compared with the expressions of diffraction fields derived by Pelosi et al.  also with perturbation technique, (32) is not that complicated and has clearly physical meanings, in that the transition function appears with the factors π − (ϕ − ϕ0) and π − (ϕ + ϕ0), which, when the factors tend to zero, just are the incident shadow boundary and reflective shadow boundary respectively. In addition, this approach can evaluate the fields at very skew incidence.
 It is worth noting that when it comes to the normal incident case, (32) will be similar to the UTD formulation given by Tiberio et al. , furthermore, for the case of perfectly electric conducting (PEC) wedges, (32) can retrogress to a form similar to the well known formulation given by Kouyoumjian and Pathak . Compared with the two expressions given by the two former, (32) is apparently more concise, because, here, we do not need to talk about the N±, but directly give the final results by determining the shadow boundaries from the meromorphic function (α).
5. Numerical Examples
 To validate the method, we choose a right-angled wedge (n = 3/2) because of the fact that in this configuration, the Maliuzhinets function is known in a simple trigonometric functional form. Meanwhile, in all the numerical examples below, the independent factor exp (−jkz cos β0) is suppressed, and all the fields are evaluated at a normalized distance ktρ = 10 from the edge.
Figure 3 shows the amplitude variation of the total longitudinal field ηHz with respect to the observation points. The incident plane wave is transverse electric (TE) polarized ( = 0, = 1) and impinges on the edge from ϕ0 = 45° and β0 a parameter as 90°, 70°, 50° respectively. The impedance tensor is Zzz0/η = Zρρ0/η = j/2 (isotropic impedance), Zzzn = Zρρn = 0 (PEC). The numerical results are perfectly accordant with Pelosi et al. [1998, Figure 3a] (dots).
Figure 4 shows the amplitude variation of the total longitudinal field Ez with respect to the observation points, when a transverse magnetic (TM) polarized plane wave ( = 1, = 0) impinges on the edge of wedge with both faces coated by anisotropic impedance. In this example, likewise, ϕ0 = 45° and β0 = 90°, 70°, 50° respectively. The impedance tensor is Zzz0,n/η = 1, Zρρ0,n/η = 2. The numerical results agree very well with Pelosi et al. [1998, Figure 4a] (dots).
 In Figure 5, the impedance is also anisotropic, but at the direction parallel the edge, the impedance is zero, viz. Zzz0,n = 0 and Zρρ0,n/η = (1 ± j)/2. A TE polarized plane wave ( = 0, = 1) incident from ϕ0 = 30° and β0 = 90°, 70°, 50°, respectively. The amplitude of the total field's variation is identical with Pelosi et al. [1998, Figure 6] (dots).
 The field behavior dependent upon the parameters of the impedance is demonstrated in Figure 6 by a TM polarized plane wave (Ezi = 1, ηHzi = 0) incident from β0 = 45°, ϕ0 = 30°. The face illuminated is characterized by an anisotropic impedance Zzz0/η = − j(0.6 − δ), Zρρ0/η = − j(0.6 + δ), with δ as a parameter: 0.4,0.2, 0.02, respectively, while the shaded face (ϕ = nπ) is PEC. The numerical results are consistent with the exact solutions (dots) [Manara and Nepa, 2000].
 A further example is reported in Figure 7 to demonstrate the field behavior dependent upon the parameters of the impedance. The incident wave is TE polarized (Ezi = 0, ηHzi = 1) and incident from β0 = 45°, ϕ0 = 60°. The face illuminated is anisotropic Zzz0/η = j, Zρρ0/η = jδ and the other is PEC, with δ = 0.5, 0.1, 0. The numerical results are accordant with the exact solutions (dots) [Manara and Nepa, 2000].
Figure 8 gives an example of the total longitudinal field Ez scattered by a very obliquely incident plane wave. The incident wave is TM polarized ( = 1, = 0) and impinges on the edge from ϕ0 = 45° and β0 = 5°, 10°, 15°, respectively. The impedance tensor is Zzz0/η = j/4, Zρρ0/η = −j/4, Zzzn/η = (1 − j)/4, Zρρn/η = (1 + j)/4, respectively.
 Plots for the amplitude of the total longitudinal field ηHz of TE polarized ( = 0, = 1) are shown in Figure 9. This time the incident plane wave also impinges on the edge from ϕ0 = 45° and β0 a parameter as 5°, 10°, 15°. The impedance tensor is Zzz0/η = 1/4, Zρρ0/η = 1 − j, Zzzn/η = 2j, Zρρn/η = j/2, respectively.
 Finally, Figure 10 demonstrates the amplitude variation of the total longitudinal field Ez by a TM polarized ( = 1, = 0) plane wave incident on a PEC wedge from direction ϕ0 = 30° and β0 a parameter as 60°, 45°, 20° respectively.
 We note that, as apparent in all numerical examples presented in this section, the discontinuity of the diffraction field at the incident shadow boundary and the reflecting shadow boundaries just compensates the discontinuity of GO fields so as to make the total field smooth and continuous everywhere in the absence of the wedge region.
 An asymptotic formulation (in the UTD framework) for total fields diffracted by an anisotropic impedance wedge has been presented, when the wedge is illuminated by an arbitrarily polarized plane wave impinging at skew incidence on its edge. The surface impedance tensor principal anisotropy axes are along directions parallel and perpendicular to the edge. The solution is derived by resorting to the perturbation technique based on two solved special cases: normal incidence and grazing to the edge incidence. The numerical examples give a good agreement with those in published papers, and provide a uniform and continuous behavior of the field with respect to the skewness of the incident wave not only in close to normal incidence, but also in almost grazing to the edge incidence. Further, the method can be applied to the isotropic case with the arbitrary impedance and the PEC case as well.
 The research in this paper is supported by the second Academy of China–Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation, China.