Ray trace calculation of ionospheric propagation at lower frequencies
Article first published online: 8 JUN 2006
Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.
Volume 41, Issue 5, October 2006
How to Cite
2006), Ray trace calculation of ionospheric propagation at lower frequencies, Radio Sci., 41, RS5S37, doi:10.1029/2005RS003338.(
- Issue published online: 8 JUN 2006
- Article first published online: 8 JUN 2006
- Manuscript Accepted: 23 FEB 2006
- Manuscript Revised: 3 FEB 2006
- Manuscript Received: 17 AUG 2005
- ray tracing;
- low frequency
 The Raytrace/Ionospheric Conductivity and Electron Density–Bent-Gallagher model has been revised to make it applicable to ionospheric propagation at low radio frequencies (0.5–5.0 MHz), where the ionosphere and magnetic anisotropy drastically alter propagation paths and provide a severe test of propagation model algorithms. The necessary revisions are discussed, and the model is applied to the problem of ionospheric penetration from a source below the ionosphere to a receiver above the ionosphere. It is necessary to include the electron collision frequency in the Appleton-Hartree index of refraction in order to permit ionospheric penetration for radio frequencies below the maximum plasma frequency (e.g., whistler modes). The associated reformulation of the ray trace equations for a complex index of refraction is straightforward. Difficulties with numerical methods are cited for the lowest frequencies, and future improvements are indicated.