Magnetic storms in the magnetosphere can cause damage to communication satellites and large-scale power outages.The concept that a magnetic storm is a compilation of a series of substorms was proposed by Akasofu [1968]. However, Kamide [1992] showed that substorms are not a necessary condition for the occurrence of a magnetic storm. This controversy initiated a new era of research on the storm-substorm relation, which was the subject of a recent workshop in Banff, Alberta, Canada.

The main topics discussed during the meeting included a brief overview of what a substorm is, how quasiperiodic substorm events and steady magnetospheric convection (SMC) events without substorms contribute to storms, and how plasma flows enhanced by magnetic reconnection in the plasma sheet contribute to substorms and storms.