Scientific drilling project on Russia's Mutnovsky Volcano



What is the relationship between volcanoes that ring the Pacific plate and hydrothermal systems? A typical geometry consists of a stratovolcano or dome complex with fumaroles at the summit and hydrothermal manifestations on its flank. Analogous subsurface mineralization is porphyry copper deposits flanked by shallow copper-silver-gold acid-sulfate deposits and base metal veins.

Possible reasons for this association are (1) flow of magmatic gas and heat from the volcano's conduit mixing with meteoric water; (2) dikes extending from or feeding toward the volcano that extend well beyond the surface edifice; or (3) peripheral hot intrusions that are remnants of previous volcanic episodes and unrelated to current volcanism.