Recent cooling of the upper ocean
Article first published online: 20 SEP 2006
Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.
Geophysical Research Letters
Volume 33, Issue 18, September 2006
How to Cite
2006), Recent cooling of the upper ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L18604, doi:10.1029/2006GL027033., , and (
- Issue published online: 20 SEP 2006
- Article first published online: 20 SEP 2006
- Manuscript Accepted: 11 AUG 2006
- Manuscript Revised: 29 JUN 2006
- Manuscript Received: 26 MAY 2006
 We observe a net loss of 3.2 (±1.1) × 1022 J of heat from the upper ocean between 2003 and 2005. Using a broad array of in situ ocean measurements, we present annual estimates of global upper-ocean heat content anomaly from 1993 through 2005. Including the recent downturn, the average warming rate for the entire 13-year period is 0.33 ± 0.23 W/m2 (of the Earth's total surface area). A new estimate of sampling error in the heat content record suggests that both the recent and previous global cooling events are significant and unlikely to be artifacts of inadequate ocean sampling.