• Andersson, A. J., F. T. Mackenzie, and L. M. Ver (2003), Solution of shallow-water carbonates: An insignificant buffer against rising atmospheric CO2, Geology, 31, 513516.
  • Archer, D. (2005), Fate of fossil fuel CO2 in geologic time, J. Geophys. Res., 110, C09S05, doi:10.1029/2004JC002625.
  • Archer, D. E., H. Kheshgi, and E. Maier-Reimer (1998), Dynamics of fossil fuel CO2 neutralization by marine CaCO3, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 12, 259276.
  • Barry, J. P., K. R. Buck, C. Lovera, L. Kuhnz, and P. J. Whaling (2005), Utility of deep sea CO2 release experiments in understanding the biology of a high-CO2 ocean: Effects of hypercapnia on deep sea meiofauna, J. Geophys. Res., 110, C09S12, doi:10.1029/2004JC002629.
  • Caldeira, K., and M. E. Wickett (2003), Anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH, Nature, 425, 365366.
  • Caldeira, K., and M. E. Wickett (2005), Ocean model predictions of chemistry changes from carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere and ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 110, C09S04, doi:10.1029/2004JC002671.
  • Caldeira, K., et al. (2005), Ocean storage, in Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage: Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by B. Metz et al., pp. 277318, Cambridge Univ. Press, New York.
  • Dickson, A. G. (1981), An exact definition of total alkalinity, and a procedure for the estimation of alkalinity and total inorganic carbon from titration data, Deep Sea Res., Part A, 28, 609623.
  • Dickson, A. G., and F. J. Millero (1987a), A comparison of the equilibrium constants for the dissociation of carbonic acid in seawater media, Deep Sea Res., Part A., 34, 17331743.
  • Dickson, A. G., and F. J. Millero (1987b), Corrigenda, Deep Sea Res., Part A., 36, 983.
  • Feely, R. A., C. L. Sabine, K. Lee, W. Berelson, J. Kleypas, V. J. Fabry, and F. J. Millero (2004), Impact of anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 system in the oceans, Science, 305, 362366.
  • Gattuso, J.-P., D. Allemand, and M. Frankignoulle (1999), Photosynthesis and calcification at cellular, organismal and community levels in coral reefs: A review on interactions and control by carbonate chemistry, Am. Zool., 39, 160183.
  • González-Dávila, M., J. M. Santana-Casiano, M.-J. Rueda, O. Llinás, and E.-F. González-Dávila (2003), Seasonal and interannual variability of sea-surface carbon dioxide species at the European Station for Time Series in the Ocean at the Canary Islands (ESTOC) between 1996 and 2000, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 17(3), 1076, doi:10.1029/2002GB001993.
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2001), Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, edited by J. T. Houghton et al., 881 pp., Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, U. K.
  • Kleypas, J. A., R. W. Buddemeier, D. Archer, J. P. Gattuso, C. Langdon, and B. N. Opdyke (1999), Geochemical consequences of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide on coral reefs, Science, 284, 118120.
  • Lewis, E., and D. W. R. Wallace (1998), Program developed for CO2 system calculations, Rep. ORNL/CDIAC-105, Carbon Dioxide Inf. Anal. Cent., Oak Ridge Natl. Lab., U.S. Dep. of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn.
  • Loáiciga, H. A. (2006), Modern-age buildup of CO2 and its effects on seawater acidity and salinity, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L10605, doi:10.1029/2006GL026305.
  • Mehrbach, C., C. H. Culberson, J. E. Hawley, and R. M. Pytkowicz (1973), Measurement of the apparent dissociation constants of carbonic acid in seawater at atmospheric pressure, Limnol. Oceanogr., 18, 897907.
  • Orr, J. C., et al. (2005), Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms, Nature, 437, 681686.
  • Pörtner, H. O., M. Langenbuch, and A. Reipschlager (2004), Biological impact of elevated ocean CO2 concentrations: Lessons from animal physiology and Earth history? J. Oceanogr., 60, 705718.
  • Sabine, C. L., et al. (2004), The oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2, Science, 305, 367371.
  • Seibel, B. A., and V. J. Fabry (2003), Marine biotic response to elevated carbon dioxide, Adv. Appl. Biodiversity Sci., 4, 5967.
  • Stumm, W., and J. J. Morgan (1996), Aquatic Chemistry, 3rd ed., 1022 pp., Wiley, New York.
  • Sundquist, E. T. (1985), Geological perspectives on carbon dioxide and the carbon cycle, in The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO2: Natural Variations, Archean to Present, Geophys. Mongr. Ser., vol. 32, edited by E. T. Sundquist, and W. S. Broecker, pp. 559, AGU, Washington, D. C.
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1976), Quality Criteria for Water, Washington, D. C.
  • Zachos, J. C., et al. (2005), Rapid acidification of the ocean during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum, Science, 308, 16111615.
  • Zeebe, R. E., and D. Wolf-Gladrow (2001), CO2in Seawater: Equilibrium, Kinetics, Isotopes, 346 pp., Elsevier Sci., Amsterdam.