• Aleksandrov, N. L., E. M. Bazelyan, I. V. Kochetov, and N. A. Dyatko (1997), The ionization kinetics and electric field in the leader channel in long air gaps, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys., 30, 16161624, doi:10.1088/00223727/30/11/011.
  • Babaeva, N. Y., and G. V. Naidis (1997), Dynamics of positive and negative streamers in air in weak uniform electric fields, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 25(2), 375379, doi:10.1109/27.602514.
  • Bilitza, D. (2001), International reference ionosphere 2000, Radio Sci., 36, 261271.
  • Fehsenfeld, F. C., and E. E. Ferguson (1974), Laboratory studies of negative ion reactions with atmospheric trace constituents, J. Chem. Phys., 61(8), 31813193.
  • Ferguson, E. E. (1979), Ion chemistry of the middle atmosphere, NASA Conf. Publ., CP-2090, 7188.
  • Florescu-Mitchell, A. I., and J. B. A. Mitchell (2006), Dissociative recombination, Phys. Rep., 430(5–6), 277374.
  • Glukhov, V. S., V. P. Pasko, and U. S. Inan (1992), Relaxation of transient lower ionospheric disturbances caused by lightning-whistler-induced electron precipitation bursts, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 16,97116,979.
  • Gurevich, A. V. (1978), Nonlinear Phenomena in the Ionosphere, Springer, New York.
  • Herzenberg, A. (1969), Attachment of slow electron to oxygen molecules, J. Chem. Phys., 51(11), 49424950.
  • Hõrrak, U., J. Salm, and H. Tammet (2000), Statistical characterization of air ion mobility spectra at Tahkuse Observatory: Classification of air ions, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 92919302.
  • Jursa, A. S. (Ed.) (1985), Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Environment, Air Force Geophys. Lab., Springfield, Va.
  • Kozlov, S. I., V. A. Vlaskov, and N. V. Smirnova (1988), Specialized aeronomic model for investigating artificial midification of the middle atmosphere and lower ionosphere. 1. Requirements of the model and basic concepts of its formation, Cosmic Res., Engl. Transl., 26, 635642.
  • MacGorman, D. R., and W. D. Rust (1998), The Electrical Nature of Storms, Oxford Univ. Press, New York.
  • Mitchell, J. D., and L. C. Hale (1973), Observations of the lowest ionosphere, Space Res., 13, 471476.
  • Mitra, A. P. (1975), D-region in disturbed conditions, including flares and energetic particles, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 37, 895913.
  • Pasko, V. P., and U. S. Inan (1994), Recovery signatures of lightning-associated VLF perturbations as a measure of the lower ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 17,52317,538.
  • Pasko, V. P., U. S. Inan, T. F. Bell, and Y. N. Taranenko (1997), Sprites produced by quasi-electrostatic heating and ionization in the lower ionosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 45294562.
  • Pasko, V. P., U. S. Inan, and T. F. Bell (1998), Spatial structure of sprites, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 21232126.
  • Pasko, V. P., M. A. Stanley, J. D. Mathews, U. S. Inan, and T. G. Wood (2002), Electrical discharge from a thundercloud top to the lower ionosphere, Nature, 416(6877), 152154, doi:10.1038/416152a.
  • Reid, G. C. (1979), The middle atmosphere, NASA Conf. Publ., CP-2090, 2742.
  • Rishbeth, H., and O. W. Garriott (1969), Introduction to Ionospheric Physics, Elsevier, New York.
  • Rodriguez, J. V., and U. S. Inan (1994), Electron density changes in the nighttime D region due to heating by very-low-frequency transmitters, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 9396.
  • Wait, J. R. (1970), Electromagnetic Waves in Stratified Media, 2nd ed., Elsevier, New York.
  • Wescott, E. M., D. D. Sentman, H. C. Stenbaek-Nielsen, P. Huet, M. J. Heavner, and D. R. Moudry (2001), New evidence for the brightness and ionization of blue starters and blue jets, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 21,54921,554.
  • Zinn, J., C. D. Sutherland, and S. Ganguly (1990), The solar flare of August 18, 1979: Incoherent scatter radar data and photochemical model comparisons, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 16,70516,718.