SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Andres, R. J., and A. D. Kasgnoc (1998), A time-averaged inventory of subaerial volcanic sulfur emissions, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 2525125261.
  • Andronache, C. (2003), Estimated variability of below-cloud aerosol removal by rainfall for observed aerosol size distributions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 131143.
  • Andronache, C. (2004), Estimates of sulfate aerosol wet scavenging coefficient for locations in the Eastern United States, Atmos. Environ., 38, 795804.
  • Birmili, W., and A. Wiedensohler (2000), New particle formation in the continental boundary layer: Meteorological and gas phase parameter influence, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 33253328.
  • Birmili, W., A. Wiedensohler, J. Heintzenberg, and K. Lehmann (2001), Atmospheric particle number size distribution in central Europe: Statistical relations to air masses and meteorology, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D23), 32,00532,018.
  • Charlson, R. J., and J. Heintzenberg (1995), Aerosol Forcing of Climate, John Wiley, New York.
  • Clarke, A. D. (1993), Atmospheric nuclei in the Pacific midtroposphere: Their nature, concentration, and evolution, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 20,63320,627.
  • Clarke, A. D., and V. N. Kapustin (2002), A Pacific aerosol survey: Part I. A decade of data on particle production, transport, evolution, and mixing in the troposphere, J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 363382.
  • Clarke, A. D., F. Eisele, V. N. Kapustin, K. Moore, D. Tanner, T. Mauldin, M. Litchy, B. Lienert, M. A. Carroll, and G. Albercook (1999), Nucleation in the equatorial free troposphere: Favorable environments during PEM-Tropics, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 57355744.
  • de Reus, M., R. Krejci, J. Williams, H. Fischer, R. Scheele, and J. Ström (2001), Vertical and horizontal distributions of the aerosol number concentration and size distribution over the northern Indian Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 28,62928,641.
  • Draxler, R. R., and G. D. Rolph (2003), HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model access via NOAA ARL READY Website http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready/hysplit4.html, NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, Silver Spring, MD.
  • Fuchs, N. A. (1964), The Mechanics of Aerosols, pp. 288302, Elsevier, New York.
  • Greenfield, S. (1957), Rain scavenging of radioactive particulate matter from the atmosphere, J. Meteorol., 14, 115125.
  • Hinds, W. C. (1999), Aerosol Technology: Properties, Behavior, and Measurement of Airborne Particles, Second Edition,, pp. 162164, John Wiley, New York.
  • Hoppel, W. A., G. M. Frick, and R. E. Larson (1986), Effect of nonprecipitating clouds on the aerosol size distribution in the marine boundary layer, Geophys. Res. Lett., 13, 125128.
  • Hoppel, W. A., G. M. Frick, J. W. Fitzgerald, R. E. Larson, et al. (1994a), Marine boundary layer measurements of new particle formation and the effects nonprecipitating clouds have on aerosol size distribution, J. Geophys. Res., D99, 14,44314,459.
  • Hoppel, W. A., G. M. Frick, and J. W. Fitzgerald (1994b), A cloud chamber study of the effect that nonprecipitating water clouds have on the aerosol size distribution, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 20, 130.
  • Kajino, M., H. Ueda, H. Satsumabayashi, and J. An (2004), Impacts of the eruption of Miyakejima Volcano on air quality over far east Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D21204, doi:10.1029/2004JD004762.
  • Kerminen, V.-M., L. Pirjola, and M. Kulmala (2001), How significantly does coagulational scavenging limit atmospheric particle production? J. Geophys. Res., 106, 24,11924,125.
  • Kulmala, M., H. Vehkamäki, T. Petäjä, M. Dal Maso, A. Lauri, V.-M. Kerminen, W. Birmili, and P. H. McMurry (2004), Formation and growth rates of ultrafine atmospheric particles: A review of observations, J. Aerosol Sci., 35, 143176.
  • Lohmann, U., and J. Feichter (2005), Global indirect aerosol effects: A review, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 715737, SRef-ID: 1680-7324/acp/2005-5-715.
  • Lugauer, M., U. Baltensperger, M. Furger, H. W. Gäggeler, D. T. Jost, M. Schwikowski, and H. Wanner (1998), Aerosol transport to the high Alpine sites Jungfraujoch (3454 m a.s.l.) and Colle Gnifetti (4452 m a.s.l.), Tellus, 50B, 7692.
  • Mäkelä, J. M., P. Aalto, V. Jokinen, T. Pohja, A. Nissinen, S. Palmroth, T. Markkanen, K. Seitsonen, H. Lihavainen, and M. Kulmala (1997), Observations of ultrafine aerosol particle formation and growth in boreal forest, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 12191222.
  • McNaughton, C. S., et al. (2004), Spatial distribution and size evolution of particles in Asian outflow: Significance of primary and secondary aerosols during ACE-Asia and TRACE-P, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D19S06, doi:10.1029/2003JD003528.
  • Mendonca, B. G. (1969), Local wind circulation on the slopes of Mauna Loa, J. Appl. Meteorol., 8, 533541.
  • Mönkkönen, P., I. K. Koponen, K. E. J. Lehtinen, K. Hämeri, R. Uma, and M. Kulmala (2005), Measurements in a highly polluted Asian mega city: Observations of aerosol number size distribution, modal parameters and nucleation events, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 5766, SRef-ID: 1680-7324/acp/2005-5-57.
  • Nyeki, S., F. Li, E. Weingartner, N. Streit, I. Colbeck, H. W. Gäggeler, and U. Baltensperger (1998), The background aerosol size distribution in the free troposphere: An analysis of the annual cycle at a high-alpine site, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 31,74731,761.
  • Osada, K., M. Kido, C. Nishita, K. Matsunaga, Y. Iwasaka, M. Nagatani, and H. Nakada (2002), Changes in ionic constituents of free tropospheric aerosol particles obtained at Mt. Norikura, Atmos. Environ., 36, 54695477.
  • Osada, K., M. Kido, H. Iida, K. Matsunaga, Y. Iwasaka, M. Nagatani, and H. Nakada (2003), Seasonal variation of free tropospheric aerosol particles at Mt. Tateyama, central Japan, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D23), 8667, doi:10.1029/2003JD003544.
  • Pruppacher, H. R., and J. D. Klett (1997), Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation, Springer, New York.
  • Raes, F. (1995), Entrainment of free tropospheric aerosols as a regulating mechanism for cloud condensation nuclei in the remote marine boundary layer, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 28932903.
  • Raes, F., R. Van Dingenen, E. Cuevas, P. F. J. Van Velthoven, and J. M. Prospero (1997), Observations of aerosols in the free troposphere and marine boundary layer of the subtropical Northeast Atlantic: Discussion of processes determining their size distribution, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 21,31521,328.
  • Raes, F., R. Van Dingenen, E. Vignati, J. Wilson, J.-P. Putaud, J. H. Seinfeld, and P. Adams (2000), Formation and cycling of aerosols in the global troposphere, Atmos. Environ., 34, 42154240.
  • Rolph, G. D. (2003), Real-time Environmental Applications and Display system (READY) Website (http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready/hysplit4.html). NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, Silver Spring, MD.
  • Sakai, T., T. Shibata, S. A. Kwon, Y. S. Kim, K. Tamura, and Y. Iwasaka (2000), Free tropospheric aerosol backscatter, depolarization ratio, and relative humidity measured with the Raman lidar at Nagoya in 1994–1997: Contributions of aerosols from the Asian continent and the Pacific Ocean, Atmos. Environ., 34, 431442.
  • Scott, B. C. (1982), Theoretical estimates of the scavenging coefficient for soluble aerosol particles as a function of precipitation type, rate and altitude, Atmos. Environ., 16, 17531762.
  • Seinfeld, J. H., and S. N. Pandis (1998). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change, John Wiley, New York.
  • Sparmacher, H., K. Fülber, and H. Bonka (1993), Blow-cloud scavenging of aerosol particles: Particle-bound radio nuclides—Experimental, Atmos. Environ., 27A, 605618.
  • Streets, D.G., et al. (2003), An inventory of gaseous and primary aerosol emissions in Asia in the year 2000, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D21), 8809, doi:10.1029/2002JD003093.
  • Tang, T. N., and H. R. Munkelwitz (1994), Water activities, densities, and refractive indices of aqueous sulfates and sodium nitrate droplets of atmospheric importance, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 18,80118,808.
  • Tsutsumi, Y., Y. Makino, and J. Jensen (1996), Aircraft measurements of tropospheric ozone over the western Pacific Ocean, Atmos. Environ., 30, 17631772.
  • Tsutsumi, Y., Y. Igarashi, Y. Zaizen, and Y. Makino (1998), Case studies of tropospheric ozone events observed at the summit of Mount Fuji, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 16,93516,951.
  • Tunved, P., J. Ström, and H.-C. Hanson (2004), An investigation of processes controlling the evolution of the boundary layer aerosol size distribution properties at the Swedish background station Aspvreten, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 25812592, SRef-ID: 1680-7324/acp/2004-4-2581.
  • Tunved, P., E. D. Nilsson, H.-C. Hansson, and J. Ström (2005), Aerosol characteristics of air masses in northern Europe: Influence of location, transport, sinks, and sources, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D07201, doi:10.1029/2004JD005085.
  • Twomey, S. (1977), Atmospheric Aerosols, Elsevier, New York.
  • Warneck, P. (1999), Chemistry of the Natural Atmosphere, 2nd ed., p. 630, Elsevier, New York.
  • Weber, R. J., J. J. Marti, P. H. McMurry, F. L. Eisele, D. J. Tanner, and A. Jefferson (1997), Measurements of new particle formation and ultrafine particle growth rates at a clean continental site, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 43754385.
  • Weingartner, E., S. Nyeki, and U. Baltensperger (1999), Seasonal and diurnal variation of aerosol size distributions (10 < D < 750 nm) at a high-alpine site (Jungfraujoch 3580 m a.s.l.), J. Geophys. Res., 104, 26,80926,820.
  • Whitby, K. T. (1978), The physical characteristics of sulfur aerosols, Atmos. Environ., 12, 135159.
  • Yu, H., et al. (2006), A review of measurement-based assessments of the aerosol direct radiative effect and forcing, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 613666.
  • Zaizen, Y., K. Okada, M. Ikegami, Y. Sawa, and Y. Makino (2004), Number-size distributions of aerosol particles in the free troposphere over the northwestern Pacific Ocean—Influence of Asian outflow and tropical air transport, J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn., 82, 11471160.