Rainwater chemistry at a high-altitude station, Mt. Lulin, Taiwan: Comparison with a background station, Mt. Fuji



[1] Samples of rainwater were collected at a high-altitude site in east Asia between April 2003 and May 2005. The volume weighted mean pH value for the whole sampling period was 5.12, approaching that of typical natural water. Non-sea-salt (nss) SO42− and NH4+ were the most abundant anion and cation, respectively, both existing mostly in the form of (NH4)2SO4. Chloride was excessive in most of the samples. The signature of biomass burning in south and Southeast Asia was evident in the Mt. Lulin samples. Concentrations of chemical species were found to be elevated in the spring months, owing to the emissions from south/Southeast Asia and peak biomass burning activities and frequent dust storms (in the Indian Thar Desert). In the summer and fall seasons our samples are mainly influenced by marine air masses. The episodic species concentrations measured at the summit of Mt. Fuji during the spring were due to the influence of volcanic emissions from Miyake-Jima. Tropical cyclones (TC) over the western Pacific region and deep convections play important roles in the transport of boundary layer pollutants to the free troposphere, although their influence is not frequently detected at Mt. Lulin and Mt. Fuji. The rainwater chemistry at Mt. Lulin and Mt. Fuji were examined together with the aerosol chemistry obtained from the TRACE-P and ACE-Asia campaigns. The analysis of the Mt. Lulin data set demonstrates its background characteristics of the rainwater chemistry in east Asia.