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Keywords:

  • channel bifurcation;
  • delta network;
  • river-mouth bar

[1] In this paper, we use observational data and numerical modeling to present a new explanation for the formation of river-dominated delta networks. Observational data from deltas throughout the world show that distributary channel widths, depths, and lengths decrease nonlinearly with successive bifurcations. Trends in width and depth are an outcome of hydraulic geometry scaling. The trend in channel length is a consequence of delta growth. Analyses of serial maps show that the positions of bifurcations are the fossilized locations of river mouth bars (also called middle-ground and distributary mouth bar) in front of old delta channel mouths. Therefore the trend in channel length can be explained through the mechanics of river mouth bar formation and evolution. We use Delft3D, a coupled hydrodynamic and morphodynamic model, to simulate the process of river mouth bar formation within an expanding turbulent jet in front of distributary channel mouths. Our results describe in detail the formation and evolution of a river mouth bar system and demonstrate that the distance to the river mouth bar is proportional to jet momentum flux and inversely proportional to grain size. Therefore channel length decreases down delta because with each successive bifurcation, the jet momentum flux decreases. These results can be used to predict the future evolution of river-dominated deltas and can be used to aid in hydrocarbon exploration of these depositional environments.