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Keywords:

  • ionospheric imaging;
  • data assimilation;
  • tomography

[1] With the current data availability from both ground- and space-based sources, the network of ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, GPS occultation receivers, in situ electron density sensors, and dual-frequency beacon transmitters, the time is right for a comprehensive review of the history, current state, and future directions of ionospheric imaging. A brief introduction and history of ionospheric imaging is presented, beginning with computerized ionospheric tomography. Then, a comprehensive review of the current state of ionospheric imaging is presented. The ability of imaging algorithms to ingest multiple types of data and use advanced inverse techniques borrowed from meteorological data assimilation to produce four-dimensional images of electron density is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the mathematical basis for the different methods. The science that ionospheric imaging addresses is discussed, and the scientific contributions that ionospheric imaging has made are described. Finally, future directions for this research area are outlined.