Comparison between the measured and predicted parameters of HF radio signals propagating along the midlatitude trough and within the polar cap



[1] Prediction of the propagation characteristics of HF signals is an important aspect in the planning and operation of radio systems operating within that frequency band. Various computer codes have been developed by a number of organizations for this purpose. These prediction techniques assume that propagation is along the great circle path and ignore the effects of various large-scale ionospheric structures that can be present in the northerly ionosphere and result in propagation well displaced from the great circle path. This paper reports on a statistical analysis of observations of the direction of arrival and signal strength, and their comparison with VOACAP predictions for four paths, two roughly tangential to the midlatitude trough, one trans-auroral, and one entirely located within the polar cap.