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Scientists need to be more aware of how their science is used and misused, and they need to speak out more often, advised several speakers at a 12 December 2006 session at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif.

Peter Gleick, co-founder and president of the Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security, said, “Increasingly, we live in a world in which science and policy are very intertwined, where the outcomes of science affect the outcomes of policy Policy is beginning to influence science.” Gleick discussed various challenges to the integrity of science, including logical fallacies, direct abuse of the scientific process, and a lack of independence in funding. Uncertainty, a natural part of all of science, can also be abused, he said. Gleick noted that in policy making, deciding when something is certain enough can be difficult.