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The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change was established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme to provide independent scientific advice about climate change. About every 5–6 years, the IPCC compiles assessments on all aspects of climate change, including science, impacts, adaptation, and mitigation, based on peer-reviewed literature. The Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) is being released throughout 2007 (see http://www.ipcc.ch).