• Northern Hemisphere;
  • terrestrial carbon sink;
  • net ecosystem exchange;
  • column-averaged CO2;
  • aircraft profiles;
  • inverse modeling

[1] Observations of the column-averaged dry molar mixing ratio of CO2 above both Park Falls, Wisconsin and Kitt Peak, Arizona, together with partial columns derived from aircraft profiles over Eurasia and North America are used to estimate the seasonal integral of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) between the atmosphere and the terrestrial biosphere in the Northern Hemisphere. We find that NEE is ∼25% larger than predicted by the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) model. We show that the estimates of NEE may have been biased low by too weak vertical mixing in the transport models used to infer seasonal changes in Northern Hemisphere CO2 mass from the surface measurements of CO2 mixing ratio.