• Cash, B. A., P. J. Kushner, and G. K. Vallis (2002), The structure and composition of the annular modes in an aquaplanet general circulation model, J. Atmos. Sci., 59, 33993414.
  • Cash, B. A., P. J. Kushner, and G. K. Vallis (2005), Zonal asymmetries, teleconnections and annular patterns in a GCM, J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 207219.
  • Feldstein, S. B. (2003), The dynamics of NAO teleconnection pattern growth and decay, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 127, 901924.
  • Held, I. M., M. Ting, and H. Wang (2002), Northern winter stationary waves: Theory and modeling, J. Clim., 15, 21252144.
  • Hendon, H. H., and D. L. Hartmann (1985), Variability in a nonlinear model of the atmosphere with zonally symmetric forcing, J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 27832797.
  • Körnich, H., G. Schmitz, and E. Becker (2006), The role of stationary waves in the maintenance of the northern annular mode as deduced from model experiments, J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 29312947.
  • Limpasuvan, V., and D. L. Hartmann (1999), Eddies and the annular modes of climate variability, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 31333136.
  • Luo, D. (2005), A barotropic envelope Rossby soliton model for block-eddy interaction. Part I: Effect of topography, J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 521.
  • Luo, D., A. Lupo, and H. Wan (2007), Dynamics of eddy-driven low frequency dipole modes. Part I: A simple model of North Atlantic Oscillations, J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 328.
  • Luo, D., T. Gong, and Y. Diao (2007), Dynamics of eddy-driven low frequency dipole modes. Part III: Meridional displacement of westerly jet anomalies during two phases of NAO, J. Atmos. Sci., 64, 32323248.
  • Thompson, D. W. J., and J. M. Wallace (1998), The Arctic oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 12971300.
  • Thompson, D. W. J., and J. M. Wallace (2000), Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I: Month-to month variability, J. Clim., 13, 10001016.
  • Ting, M., M. P. Hoerling, T. Xu, and A. Kumar (1996), Northern Hemisphere teleconnection patterns during extreme phases of the zonal-mean circulation, J. Clim., 9, 26142633.
  • Vallis, G. K., E. P. Gerber, P. J. Kushner, and B. A. Cash (2004), A mechanism and simple dynamical model of the North Atlantic Oscillation and annular modes, J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 264280.
  • Wallace, J. M. (2000), North Atlantic Oscillation/Annular mode: Two paradigms−one phenomenon, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 126, 791805.
  • Williams, R. G., C. Wilson, and C. W. Hughes (2007), Ocean and atmosphere storm tracks: The role of eddy vorticity forcing, J. Phys. Oceanogr., in press.