Halos generated by negative cloud-to-ground lightning
Article first published online: 18 SEP 2007
Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.
Geophysical Research Letters
Volume 34, Issue 18, September 2007
How to Cite
2007), Halos generated by negative cloud-to-ground lightning, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L18801, doi:10.1029/2007GL030908., et al. (
- Issue published online: 18 SEP 2007
- Article first published online: 18 SEP 2007
- Manuscript Accepted: 20 AUG 2007
- Manuscript Revised: 2 AUG 2007
- Manuscript Received: 5 JUN 2007
- transient luminous event
 The Imager for Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) on the FORMOSAT-2 spacecraft observes Transient Luminous Events (TLE) like sprites, elves, and halos from space. We analyzed halos that were observed in Central America close enough to ELF/VLF receivers that allowed for the determination of the polarity of the parent lightning. All halos were created by negative cloud to ground lightning (−CG) strokes that occurred almost exclusively over the open water. Only three out of the 31 events happened over land. We conclude that the Central American region seems to be special with respect to the large proportion of −CG created halos. Such a behavior is very different from the occurrence of sprites that are mostly created by positive cloud to ground lightning.