SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Bliss, L. C., and N. V. Matveyeva (1992), Circumpolar arctic vegetation, in Arctic Ecosystems in a Changing Climate: An Ecophysiological Perspective, edited by F. S. Chapin III et al., pp. 5989, Academic, San Diego, Calif.,
  • Brown, J., K. M. Hinkel, and F. E. Nelson (2000), The circumpolar active layer monitoring (CALM) program: research designs and initial results, Polar Geogr., 24, 165258.
  • Callaghan, T. V., et al. (2005), Arctic tundra and polar desert ecosystems, in Arctic Climate Impact Assessment-Scientific Report, edited by C. Symon, L. Arris, and B. Heal, chap. 7, pp. 243352, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.
  • Carlson, H. (1952), Calculation of depth of thaw in frozen ground, 192223 pp., Highway Res. Board Spec. Rep. 2, Natl. Res. Counc., Washington, D. C.,
  • CAVM Team (2003), Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map, Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) Map 1, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv., Anchorage, Alaska.
  • Daanen, R. P., D. Misra, and H. E. Epstein (2007), Active-layer hydrology in nonsorted circle ecosystems of the Arctic tundra, Vadose Zone J., 6, 694704, doi:10.2136/vzj2006.0173.
  • Daanen, R., V. Romanovsky, D. Walker, and M. LaDouceur (2008), High resolution surface and subsurface survey of a nonsorted circle system, paper presented at Ninth International Conference on Permafrost, Fairbanks, Alaska, 29 June to 3 July , in press.
  • Epstein, H. E., F. S. Chapin III, M. D. Walker, and A. M. Starfield (2001a), Analyzing the functional type concept in arctic plants using a dynamic vegetation model, Oikos, 95, 239252.
  • Epstein, H. E., I. C. Burke, and A. R. Mosier (2001b), Plant effects on nitrogen retention in shortgrass steppe 2 years after 15N addition, Oecol., 128, 422430, doi:10.1007/s004420100670.
  • Everett, K. R. (1968), Soil development in the Mould Bay and Isachsen areas, Queen Elizabeth Islands, Northwest Territories, Canada, 83 pp., Rep. 24, mimeographed report, Inst. of Polar Stud., Ohio State Univ.
  • Fowler, A. C., and W. B. Krantz (1994), A generalized secondary frost heave model, SIAM J. Appl. Math., 54, 16501675, doi:10.1137/S0036139993252554.
  • Heywood, W. W. (1957), Isachsen area, Ellef Ringnes Island District of Franklin, Northwest Territories, Geol. Surv. Can. Pap., 5658.
  • IPCC (2001), Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability, 1032 pp., Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Jorgenson, M. T., and R. A. Kreig (1988), A model for mapping permafrost distribution based on landscape component maps and climatic variables, pp. 176182, Tapir, Trondheim, Norway.
  • Kade, A., and D. A. Walker (2008), Experimental alteration of vegetation on nonsorted circles: effects on cryogenic activity and implications for climate change in the Arctic, Arct, Antarct. Alp. Res., in press.
  • Kade, A., D. A. Walker, and M. K. Raynolds (2005), Plant communities and soils in cryoturbated tundra along a bioclimate gradient in the Low Arctic, Alaska, Phytocoen., 35, 761820, doi:10.1127/0340-269X/2005/0035-0761.
  • Kade, A., V. E. Romanovsky, and D. A. Walker (2006), The n-factor of nonsorted circles along a climate gradient in Arctic Alaska, Permafrost Periglac. Proc., 17, 279289, doi:10.1002/ppp.563.
  • Kessler, M. A., and B. T. Werner (2003), Self-organization of sorted patterned ground, Science, 299, 380383, doi:10.1126/science.1077309.
  • Klene, A. E., F. E. Nelson, and N. I. Shiklomanov (2001a), The n-factor as a tool in geocryological mapping seasonal thaw in thaw in the Kuparuk River Basin, Alaska, Phys. Geogr., 22, 449466.
  • Klene, A. E., F. E. Nelson, N. I. Shiklomanov, and K. M. Hinkel (2001b), The n-factor in natural landscapes: variability of air and soil-surface temperatures, Kuparuk River Basin, Alaska U.S.A. Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res., 33, 140148, doi:10.2307/1552214.
  • Kokelj, S. V., C. R. Burn, and C. Tarnocai (2007), The structure and dynamics of earth hummocks in the subarctic forest near Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada, Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res., 39, 99109, doi:10.1657/1523-0430(2007)39[99:TSADOE]2.0.CO;2.
  • Lachenbruch, A. H. (1962), Mechanics of thermal contraction cracks and ice-wedge polygons in permafrost, Spec. GSA Pap., 70, 169.
  • Mann, D. H. (2003), On patterned ground, Science, 299, 354355, doi:10.1126/science.1080301.
  • Michaelson, G. J., C. L. Ping, and J. M. Kimble (1996), Carbon storage and distribution in tundra soils of Arctic Alaska, U.S.A. Arct. Alp. Res., 28, 414424, doi:10.2307/1551852.
  • Nicolsky, D. J., V. E. Romanovsky, G. S. Tipenko, and D. A. Walker (2008), Modeling biogeophysical interactions in nonsorted circles in the Low Arctic, J. Geophys. Res., 113, G03S05, doi:10.1029/2007JG000565.
  • Osterkamp, T. E. (2003), Establishing long-term permafrost observations for active-layer and permafrost investigations in Alaska: 1977–2002, Permafrost Periglac. Proc., 14, 331342, doi:10.1002/ppp.464.
  • Peterson, R. A., and W. B. Krantz (2003), A mechanism for differential frost heave and its implications for patterned ground formation, J. Glaciol., 49, 6980.
  • Peterson, R. A., and W. B. Krantz (2008), Differential frost heave model for patterned ground formation: Corroboration with observations along a North American arctic transect, J. Geophys. Res., 113, G03S04, doi:10.1029/2007JG000559.
  • Raynolds, M. K., D. A. Walker, C. A. Munger, C. M. Vonlanthen, and A. N. Kade (2008), A map analysis of patterned ground along a North American Arctic Transect, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2007JG000512, in press.
  • Razzhivin, V. Y. (1999), Zonation of vegetation in the Russian Arctic, in The Species Concept in the High North - A Panarctic Flora Initiative, edited by I. Nordal, and V. Y. Razzhivin, pp. 113130, Norwegian Acad. of Sci. and Lett., Oslo.
  • Romanovsky, V. E., D. O. Sergueev, and T. E. Osterkamp (2003), Temporal variations in the active layer and new-surface permafrost temperatures at the long-term observatories in Northern Alaska, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Permafrost, 21–25 July 2003, edited by M. Phillips, S. M. Springman, and L. U. Arenson, pp. 989994, Balkema, Zurich, Switzerland.
  • Romanovsky, V. E., S. S. Marchenko, R. Daane, D. O. Sergeev and D. A. Walker (2008), Soil climate and frost heave along the permafrost/ecological North American Arctic Transect, paper presented at Ninth International Conference on Permafrost, Fairbanks, Alaska, in press.
  • Shur, Y., and C. Ping (2003), The driving force of frost boils and hummocks formation, Eos Trans. AGU, 84(46), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract C21B-0823.
  • Shur, Y. L., and V. B. Slavini-Borovskiy (1993), N-factor maps of Russian permafrost region, paper presented at Sixth International Conference on Permafrost, South China Univ. of Technol. Press, Wushan Guangzhou, China.
  • Shur, Y., K. M. Hinkel, and F. E. Nelson (2005a), The transient layer: Implications for geocryology and climate-change science, Permafrost Periglac. Proc., 16, 517, doi:10.1002/ppp.518.
  • Shur, Y. L., C. L. Ping, and D. A. Walker (2005b), Comprehensive model of frost boils and earth hummocks formation, paper presented at 2nd European Conference on Permafrost (EUCOP), Terra Nostra, Potsdam, Germany, 12 – 16 June .
  • Sochava, V. B. (1934), Botaniko-geograficheskie podzony v zapadnykh tundrakh Yakutii (Botanical-geographical subzones in the western tundras of Yakutia), Botanchisky Zhurnal, 19(3).
  • Stott, D. F. (1960), Ellef Ringnes Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Geol. Surv. Can. Pap., 1668.
  • Taylor, A. E. (1995), Relationship of ground temperature to air temperature in forest areas, Mackenzie Valley, Northwest Territories, Geol. Surv. Can. Curr. Res., 1995-B, 8998.
  • Taylor, A. E. (2001), Relationship of ground temperature to air temperatures in forests, in The Physical Environment of the Mackenzie Valley: A Baseline for the Assessment of Environmental Change, edited by L. D. Dyke, and G.R. Brookes, pp. 111117, Geol. Surv. of Can. Bull., Ottawa.
  • Tedrow, J. C. F. (1968), Soils of Prince Patrick Island, 83 pp., Res. Pap. 44, mimeographed report, Off. of Nav. Res., Arlington, Va.
  • van Everdingen, R. (Ed.) (2005), Multi-language glossary of permafrost and related ground-ice terms, Natl. Snow and Ice Data Cent./World Data Cent. for Glaciol., Boulder, Colo.,
  • Vincent, J. S. (1982), The Quaternary history of Banks Island, N.W.T., Canada, Geogr. Phys. Quat., 36, 209232.
  • Vincent, J. S. (1990), Late Tertiary and early Pleistocene deposits and history of Banks Island, southwestern Canadian Archipelago, Arctic, 43, 339363.
  • Vonlanthen, C. M., et al. (2008), Patterned-ground plant communities along a bioclimate gradient in the High Arctic, Canada, Phytocoeno, in press.
  • Vysotskii, G. N. (1901), Biologicheskie, pochvennye i fenologicheskie nabliudeniia v Veliko-Anadole (1892–1893), Saint Petersburg.
  • Walker, D. A., et al. (1998), Energy and trace-gas fluxes across a soil pH boundary in the Arctic, Nature, 394, 469472, doi:10.1038/28839.
  • Walker, D. A., et al. (2004), Frost-boil ecosystems: complex interactions between landforms, soils, vegetation, and climate, Permafrost Periglac. Proc., 15, 171188, doi:10.1002/ppp.487.
  • Walker, D. A., et al. (2005), The Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map, J. Veg. Sci., 16, 267282, doi:10.1658/1100-9233(2005)016[0267:TCAVM]2.0.CO;2.
  • Washburn, A. L. (1980), Geocryology: A Survey of Periglacial Processes and Environments, 406 pp., John Wiley, New York.
  • Werner, B. T., and B. Hallet (1993), Numerical simulation of self-organized stone stripes, Nature, 363, 142145, doi:10.1038/361142a0.
  • Williams, J. W., S. T. Jackson, and J. E. Kutzbach (2007), Projected distributions of novel and disappearing climates by 2100 AD, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 104, 57385742, doi:10.1073/pnas.0606292104.
  • Young, S. B. (1971), The vascular flora of St. Lawrence Island with special reference to floristic zonation in the arctic regions, Contrib. Gray Herb., 201, 11115.
  • Yurtsev, B. A. (1994), Floristic division of the Arctic, J. Veg. Sci., 5, 765776, doi:10.2307/3236191.