Marine isotope stage 3 sea level fluctuations: Data synthesis and new outlook



[1] To develop a better understanding of the abrupt Dansgaard-Oeschger mode of climate change, it is essential that we establish whether the ice sheets are actively involved, as trigger or amplifier, or whether they merely respond in a passive manner. This requires careful assessment of the fundamental issues of magnitude and phasing of global ice volume fluctuations within marine isotope stage 3 (MIS 3), which to date remain enigmatic. We review recent advances in observational studies pertaining to these key issues and discuss the implications for modeling studies. Our aim is to construct a robust stratigraphic framework for the MIS 3 period regarding sea level variability, using the most up-to-date arguments available by combining insights from both modeling and observational approaches.