SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Acosta, A., S. Diaz, M. Menghi, and M. Cabido (1992), Community patterns at different spatial scales in the grasslands of Sierras de Cordoba, Argentina, Rev. Chilena Hist. Nat., 65(2), 195207.
  • Adejuwon, J. O., and F. A. Adesina (1988), Vegetation patterns along the forest-savanna boundary in Nigeria, Singapore J. Trop. Geol., 9(1), 1832.
  • Adler, P. B., D. A. Raff, and W. K. Lauenroth (2001), The effect of grazing on the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation, Oecologia, 128(4), 465479.
  • Aguiar, M. R., and O. E. Sala (1999), Patch structure, dynamics and implications for the functioning of arid ecosystems, Trends Ecol. Evol., 14(7), 273277.
  • Aguilera, M. O., and W. K. Lauenroth (1993), Seedling establishment in adult neighborhoods intraspecific constraints in the regeneration of the bunchgrass Bouteloua-Gracilis, J. Ecol., 81(2), 253261.
  • Anderies, J. M., M. A. Janssen, and B. H. Walker (2002), Grazing management, resilience, and the dynamics of a fire-driven rangeland system, Ecosystems, 5(1), 2344.
  • Archer, S. (1989), Have southern Texas savannas been converted to woodlands in recent history? Am. Nat., 134(4), 545561.
  • Augustine, D. J. (2003), Spatial heterogeneity in the herbaceous layer of a semi-arid savanna ecosystem, Plant Ecol., 167(2), 319332.
  • Bak, P. (1996), How Nature Works: The Science of Self-Organized Criticality, Copernicus, New York.
  • Bak, P., and C. Tang (1989), Earthquakes as a self-organized critical phenomenon, J. Geophys. Res., 94(B11), 15,63515,637.
  • Bak, P., C. Tang, and K. Wiesenfeld (1988), Self-organized criticality, Phys. Rev. A, 38(1), 364374.
  • Bak, P., K. Chen, and M. Creutz (1989), Self-organized criticality in the game of life, Nature, 342(6251), 780782.
  • Bak, P., K. Chen, and C. Tang (1990), A forest-fire model and some thoughts on turbulence, Phys. Lett. A, 147(5–6), 297300.
  • Barbier, N., P. Couteron, J. Lejoly, V. Deblauwe, and O. Lejeune (2006), Self-organized vegetation patterning as a fingerprint of climate and human impact on semi-arid ecosystems, J. Ecol., 94(3), 537547.
  • Barbier, N., P. Couteron, R. Lefever, V. Deblauwe, and O. Lejeune (2008), Spatial decoupling of facilitation and competition at the origin of gapped vegetation patterns, Ecology, 89(6), 15211531.
  • Bear, J., and A. Verruyt (1990), Modeling Groundwater Flow and Pollution: Theory and Applications of Transports in Porous Media, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Netherlands.
  • Belnap, J., J. R. Welter, N. B. Grimm, N. Barger, and J. A. Ludwig (2005), Linkages between microbial and hydrologic processes in arid and semiarid watersheds, Ecology, 86(2), 298307.
  • Belsky, A. J. (1994), Influences of trees on savanna productivity—Tests of shade, nutrients, and tree-grass competition, Ecology, 75(4), 922932.
  • Bena, I. (2006), Dichotomous Markov noise: Exact results for out-of-equilibrium systems, Int. J. Mod. Phys. B, 20(20), 28252888.
  • Benzi, R., A. Sutera, and A. Vulpiani (1985), Stochastic resonance in the Landau-Ginzburg equation, J. Phys. A Math. Gen., 18(12), 22392245.
  • Bergkamp, G., A. Cerda, and A. C. Imeson (1999), Magnitude-frequency analysis of water redistribution along a climate gradient in Spain, Catena, 37(1–2), 129146.
  • Bernd, J. (1978), The problem of vegetation stripes in semi-arid Africa, Plant Res. Dev., 8, 3750.
  • Bhark, E. W., and E. E. Small (2003), Association between plant canopies and the spatial patterns of infiltration in shrubland and grassland of the Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico, Ecosystems, 6(2), 185196.
  • Boaler, S. B., and C. A. H. Hodge (1962), Vegetation stripes in Somaliland, J. Ecol., 50, 465474.
  • Boaler, S. B., and C. A. H. Hodge (1964), Observations on vegetation arcs in the Northern Region, Somali Republic, J. Ecol., 52, 511544.
  • Boeken, B., and D. Orenstein (2001), The effect of plant litter on ecosystem properties in a Mediterranean semi-arid shrubland, J. Veg. Sci., 12(6), 825832.
  • Bolliger, J. (2005), Simulating complex landscapes with a generic model: Sensitivity to qualitative and quantitative classifications, Ecol. Complexity, 2(2), 131149.
  • Bonanomi, G., M. Rietkerk, S. C. Dekker, and S. Mazzoleni (2008), Islands of fertility induce co-occurring negative and positive plant-soil feedbacks promoting coexistence, Plant Ecol., 197(2), 207218.
  • Borgogno, F., P. D'Odorico, F. Laio, and L. Ridolfi (2007), Effect of rainfall interannual variability on the stability and resilience of dryland plant ecosystems, Water Resour. Res., 43, W06411, doi:10.1029/2006WR005314.
  • Breman, H., and J.-J. Kessler (1995), Woody Plants in Agro-Ecosystems of Semi-Arid Regions, Springer, Berlin.
  • Breshears, D. D., O. B. Myers, S. R. Johnson, C. W. Meyer, and S. N. Martens (1997), Differential use of spatially heterogeneous soil moisture by two semiarid woody species: Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma, J. Ecol., 85(3), 289299.
  • Bromley, J., J. Brouwer, A. P. Barker, S. R. Gaze, and C. Valentin (1997), The role of surface water redistribution in an area of patterned vegetation in a semi-arid environment, south-west Niger, J. Hydrol., 198(1–4), 129.
  • Bruno, J. F. (2000), Facilitation of cobble beach plant communities through habitat modification by Spartina alterniflora, Ecology, 81(5), 11791192.
  • Brush, S. G. (1967), History of Lenz-Ising model, Rev. Mod. Phys., 39(4), 883893.
  • Buceta, J., and K. Lindenberg (2002), Switching-induced Turing instability, Phys. Rev. E, Part 2, 66(4), 046202.
  • Buceta, J., and K. Lindenberg (2003), Spatial patterns induced purely by dichotomous disorder, Phys. Rev. E, Part 1, 68(1), 011103.
  • Buceta, J., K. Lindenberg, and J. M. R. Parrondo (2002a), Stationary and oscillatory spatial patterns induced by global periodic switching, Phys. Rev. Lett., 88(2), 024103.
  • Buceta, J., K. Lindenberg, and J. M. R. Parrondo (2002b), Pattern formation induced by nonequilibrium global alternation of dynamics, Phys. Rev. E, Part 2, 66(6), 069902.
  • Buceta, J., K. Lindenberg, and J. M. R. Parrondo (2002c), Spatial patterns induced by random switching, Fluctuation Noise Lett., 2(1), L21L29.
  • Burgman, M. A. (1988), Spatial-analysis of vegetation patterns in southern western Australia—Implications for reserve design, Aust. J. Ecol., 13(4), 415429.
  • Burke, I. C., et al. (1998), Plant-soil interactions in temperate grasslands, Biogeochemistry, 42(1–2), 121143.
  • Carrillo, O., M. A. Santos, J. Garcia-Ojalvo, and J. M. Sancho (2004), Spatial coherence resonance near pattern-forming instabilities, Europhys. Lett., 65(4), 452458.
  • Casper, B. B., H. J. Schenk, and R. B. Jackson (2003), Defining a plant's belowground zone of influence, Ecology, 84(9), 23132321.
  • Castets, V., E. Dulos, J. Boissonade, and P. Dekepper (1990), Experimental-evidence of a sustained standing Turing-type nonequilibrium chemical-pattern, Phys. Rev. Lett., 64(24), 29532956.
  • Caylor, K. K., and H. H. Shugart (2006), Pattern and process in savanna ecosystems, in Dryland Ecohydrology, edited by P. D'Odorico, and A. Porporato, pp. 259282, Springer, Berlin.
  • Caylor, K. K., H. H. Shugart, and I. Rodriguez-Iturbe (2005), Tree canopy effects on simulated water stress in southern African savannas, Ecosystems, 8(1), 1732.
  • Caylor, K. K., P. D'Odorico, and I. Rodriguez-Iturbe (2006), On the ecohydrology of structurally heterogeneous semiarid landscapes, Water Resour. Res., 42, W07424, doi:10.1029/2005WR004683.
  • Chandrasekhar, S. (1961), Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability, Clarendon, Oxford, U. K.
  • Chang, M. (2002), Forest Hydrology: An Introduction to Water and Forests, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.
  • Charley, J. L. (1972), The role of shrubs in nutrient cycling, in Wildland Shrubs: Their Biology and Utilization, Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-1, pp. 182203, For. Serv., U.S. Dep. of Agric., Washington, D. C.
  • Charley, J. L., and N. E. West (1975), Plant-induced soil chemical patterns in some shrub-dominated semi-desert ecosystem of Utah, J. Ecol., 63(3), 945963.
  • Clos-Arceduc, A. (1956), Etude sur photographies aériennes d'une formation vég'tale sahélienne: La brousse tigrée, Bull. Inst. Fondam. Afr. Noire, Ser. A, 18(3), 677684.
  • Comins, H. N., and M. P. Hassell (1996), Persistence of multispecies host-parasitoid interactions in spatially distributed models with local dispersal, J. Theor. Biol., 183(1), 1928.
  • Cornet, A. F., J. P. Delhoume, and C. Montana (1988), Dynamics of striped vegetation patterns and water balance in the Chihuahuan desert, in Diversity and Patterns in Plant Communities, edited by H. J. During, M. J. A. Werger, and J. H. Willems, pp. 221231, SPB Academic, The Hague, Netherlands.
  • Couteron, P. (2002), Quantifying change in patterned semi-arid vegetation by Fourier analysis of digitized aerial photographs, Int. J. Remote Sens., 23(17), 34073425.
  • Couteron, P., and O. Lejeune (2001), Periodic spotted patterns in semi-arid vegetation explained by a propagation-inhibition model, J. Ecol., 89(4), 616628.
  • Couteron, P., A. Mahamane, P. Ouedraogo, and J. Seghieri (2000), Differences between banded thickets (tiger bush) at two sites in West Africa, J. Veg. Sci., 11(3), 321328.
  • Cross, M. C., and P. C. Hohenberg (1993), Pattern-formation outside of equilibrium, Rev. Mod. Phys., 65(3), 8511112.
  • Dale, M. R. T. (1999), Spatial Pattern Analysis in Plant Ecology, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, U. K.
  • DiPrima, R. C., and H. L. Swinney (1981), Instabilities and trasition in flow between concentric rotating cylinders, in Hydrodynamic Instabilities and the Transition to Turbulence, edited by H. L. Swinney, and J. P. Gollub, pp. 139180, Springer, Berlin.
  • D'Odorico, P., F. Laio, and L. Ridolfi (2005), Noise-induced stability in dryland plant ecosystems, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 102(31), 10,81910,822.
  • D'Odorico, P., F. Laio, and L. Ridolfi (2006a), A probabilistic analysis of fire-induced tree-grass coexistence in savannas, Am. Nat., 167(3), E79E87.
  • D'Odorico, P., F. Laio, and L. Ridolfi (2006b), Vegetation patterns induced by random climate fluctuations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L19404, doi:10.1029/2006GL027499.
  • D'Odorico, P., F. Laio, and L. Ridolfi (2006c), Patterns as indicators of productivity enhancement by facilitation and competition in dryland vegetation, J. Geophys. Res., 111, G03010, doi:10.1029/2006JG000176.
  • D'Odorico, P., K. Caylor, G. S. Okin, and T. M. Scanlon (2007a), On soil moisture-vegetation feedbacks and their possible effects on the dynamics of dryland ecosystems, J. Geophys. Res., 112, G04010, doi:10.1029/2006JG000379.
  • D'Odorico, P., F. Laio, A. Porporato, L. Ridolfi, and N. Barbier (2007b), Noise-induced vegetation patterns in fire-prone savannas, J. Geophys. Res., 112, G02021, doi:10.1029/2006JG000261.
  • Dormann, S., A. Deutsch, and A. T. Lawniczak (2001), Fourier analysis of Turing-like pattern formation in cellular automaton models, Future Gen. Comput. Syst., 17(7), 901909.
  • Drossel, B., and F. Schwabl (1992), Self-organized criticality in a forest-fire model, Physica A, 191(1–4), 4750.
  • Dubois-Violette, E., G. Durand, E. Guyon, P. Manneville, and P. Pieranski (1978), Instabilities in nematic liquid crystals, in Solid State Physics, suppl. 14, edited by L. Liebert, pp. 147208, Academic, New York.
  • Dunkerley, D. L. (1997a), Banded vegetation: Development under uniform rainfall from a simple cellular automaton model, Plant Ecol., 129(2), 103111.
  • Dunkerley, D. L. (1997b), Banded vegetation: Survival under drought and grazing pressure based on a simple cellular automaton model, J. Arid Environ., 35(3), 419428.
  • Dunkerley, D. L., and K. J. Brown (1999), Banded vegetation near Broken Hill, Australia: Significance of surface roughness and soil physical properties, Catena, 37(1–2), 7588.
  • Durrett, R. (1999), Stochastic spatial models, SIAM Rev, 41(4), 677718.
  • Eddy, J., G. S. Humphreys, D. M. Hart, P. B. Mitchell, and P. C. Fanning (1999), Vegetation arcs and litter dams: Similarities and differences, Catena, 37(1–2), 5773.
  • Eldridge, D. J., and R. S. B. Greene (1994), Microbiotic soil crusts—A review of their roles in soil ecological processes in the rangelands of Australia, Aust. J. Soil Res., 32(3), 389415.
  • Esteban, J., and V. Fairen (2006), Self-organized formation of banded vegetation patterns in semi-arid regions: A model, Ecol. Complexity, 3(2), 109118.
  • Evans, D., and J. R. Ehlringer (1993), Broken nitrogen cycles in arid lands: Evidence from 15N of soils, Oecologia, 94, 314317.
  • Feagin, R. A., X. B. Wu, F. E. Smeins, S. G. Whisenant, and W. E. Grant (2005), Individual versus community level processes and pattern formation in a model of sand dune plant succession, Ecol. Modell., 183(4), 435449.
  • Fearnehough, W., M. A. Fullen, D. J. Mitchell, I. C. Trueman, and J. Zhang (1998), Aeolian deposition and its effect on soil and vegetation changes on stabilised desert dunes in northern China, Geomorphology, 23(2–4), 171182.
  • Fuentes, E. R., A. J. Hoffmann, A. Poiani, and M. C. Alliende (1986), Vegetation change in large clearings—Patterns in the Chilean Matorral, Oecologia, 68(3), 358366.
  • Garcia-Moya, E., and C. M. McKell (1970), Contribution of shrubs to the nitrogen economy of a desert-wash plant community, Ecology, 51(1), 8188.
  • Garcia-Ojalvo, J., and J. M. Sancho (1999), Noise in Spatially Extended Systems, Springer, New York.
  • Gilad, E., J. von Hardenberg, A. Provenzale, M. Shachak, and E. Meron (2004), Ecosystems engineers: From pattern formation to habitat creation, Phys. Rev. Lett., 93, 098105.
  • Gilad, E., J. von Hardenberg, A. Provenzale, M. Shachak, and E. Meron (2007), A mathematical model of plants as ecosystem engineers, J. Theor. Biol., 244(4), 680691.
  • Giles, R. H., and M. K. Trani (1999), Key elements of landscape pattern measures, Environ. Manage., 23, 477481.
  • Greene, R. S. B. (1992), Soil physical-properties of three geomorphic zones in a semiarid Mulga woodland, Aust. J. Soil Res., 30(1), 5569.
  • Greene, R. S. B., P. I. A. Kinnell, and J. T. Wood (1994), Role of plant cover and stock trampling on runoff and soil-erosion from semiarid wooded rangelands, Aust. J. Soil Res., 32(5), 953973.
  • Greene, R. S. B., C. Valentin, and M. Esteves (2001), Runoff and erosion processes, in Banded Vegetation Patterning in Arid and Semiarid Environments: Ecological Processes and Consequences for Management, Ecol. Stud., vol. 149, edited by C. Valentin et al., pp. 5276, Springer, New York.
  • Greig-Smith, P. (1979), Pattern in vegetation, J. Ecol., 67, 775779.
  • Greig-Smith, P., and M. J. Chadwick (1965), Data on pattern within plant communities. III. Acacia-Capparis semi-desert scrub in the Sudan, J. Ecol., 53, 465474.
  • Guichard, F., P. M. Halpin, G. W. Allison, J. Lubchenco, and B. A. Menge (2003), Mussel disturbance dynamics: Signatures of oceanographic forcing from local interactions, Am. Nat., 161(6), 889904.
  • Gunaratne, G. H., and R. E. Jones (1995), An invariant measure of disorder in patterns, Phys. Rev. Lett., 75(18), 32813284.
  • Guttal, V., and C. Jayaprakash (2007), Self-organization and productivity in semi-arid ecosystems: Implications of seasonality in rainfall, J. Theor. Biol., 248, 490500.
  • Hanski, I. (2004), Metapopulation theory, its use and misuse, Basic Appl. Ecol., 5(5), 225229.
  • Harper, K. T., and J. R. Marble (1988), A role for nonvascular plants in management of arid and semiarid rangeland, in Vegetation Science Applications for Rangeland Analysis and Management, edited by P. T. Tueller, pp. 135169, Kluwer Acad., Dordrecht, Netherlands.
  • Hemming, C. F. (1965), Vegetation arcs in Somaliland, J. Ecol., 53, 5767.
  • Henderson, T. C., R. Venkataraman, and G. Choikim (2004), Reaction-diffusion patterns in smart sensor networks, in Proceedings of the 2004 IEEE International Conference on Robotica and Automation, pp. 654658, Inst. of Electr. and Electron. Eng., New Orleans, La.
  • Herbut, I. (2007), A Modern Approach to Critical Phenomena, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, U. K.
  • Hiernaux, P., and B. Gerard (1999), The influence of vegetation pattern on the productivity, diversity and stability of vegetation: The case of ‘brousse tigree’ in the Sahel, Acta Oecol., 20(3), 147158.
  • Hillel, D. (1998), Environmental Soil Physics, Academic, San Diego, Calif.
  • HilleRisLambers, R., M. Rietkerk, F. van den Bosch, H. H. T. Prins, and H. de Kroon (2001), Vegetation pattern formation in semi-arid grazing systems, Ecology, 82(1), 5061.
  • Horsthemke, W., and R. Lefever (1984), Noise-Induced Transitions. Theory and Applications in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, Springer, Berlin.
  • Issa, O. M., J. Trichet, C. Defarge, A. Couté, and C. Valentin (1999), Morphology and microstructure of microbiotic soil crusts on a tiger bush sequence (Niger, Sahel), Catena, 37(1–2), 175196.
  • Iwasa, Y., K. Sato, and S. Nakashima (1991), Dynamic modeling of wave regeneration (Shimagare) in subalpine Abies forests, J. Theor. Biol., 152(2), 143158.
  • Jensen, H. J. (1998), Self-Organized Criticality, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, U. K.
  • Joffre, R., and S. Rambal (1993), How tree cover influences the water-balance of Mediterranean rangelands, Ecology, 74(2), 570582.
  • Jones, C. G., J. H. Lawton, and M. Shachak (1994), Organisms as ecosystem engineers, Oikos, 69(3), 373386.
  • Kefi, S., M. Rietkerk, C. L. Alados, Y. Pueyo, V. P. Papanastasis, A. ElAich, and P. de Ruiter (2007a), Spatial vegetation patterns and imminent desertification in Mediterranean arid ecosystems, Nature, 449(7159), 213217.
  • Kefi, S., M. Rietkerk, M. van Baalen, and M. Loreau (2007b), Local facilitation, bistability and transitions in arid ecosystems, Theor. Popul. Biol., 71(3), 367379.
  • Keymer, J. E., P. A. Marquet, and A. R. Johnson (1998), Pattern formation in a patch occupancy metapopulation model: A cellular automata approach, J. Theor. Biol., 194, 7990.
  • Klausmeier, C. A. (1999), Regular and irregular patterns in semiarid vegetation, Science, 284(5421), 18261828.
  • Krummel, J. R., R. H. Grardner, G. Sugihara, and R. V. O'Neill (1987), Landscape patterns in a disturbed environment, Oikos, 48(3), 321324.
  • Kubota, Y., and T. Hara (1995), Tree competition and species coexistence in a sub-boreal forest, northern Japan, Ann. Bot., 76(5), 503512.
  • Lam, N. S.-N., and L. de Cola (1993), Fractals in Geography, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J.
  • Lanzer, A. T. S., and V. D. Pillar (2002), Probabilistic cellular automaton: Model and application to vegetation dynamics, Commun. Ecol., 3(2), 159167.
  • Lefever, R., and O. Lejeune (1997), On the origin of tiger bush, Bull. Math. Biol., 59(2), 263294.
  • Lefever, R., O. Lejeune, and P. Couteron (2000), Generic modelling of vegetation patterns. A case study of tiger bush in Sub-Saharian Sahel, in Mathematical Models for Biological Pattern Formation: Frontiers in Biological Mathematics, edited by P. K. Maini, and H. G. Othmer, pp. 83112, Springer, New York.
  • Lejeune, O., and M. Tlidi (1999), A model for the explanation of vegetation stripes (tiger bush), J. Veg. Sci., 10(2), 201208.
  • Lejeune, O., P. Couteron, and R. Lefever (1999), Short range co-operativity competing with long range inhibition explains vegetation patterns, Acta Oecol., 20(3), 171183.
  • Lejeune, O., M. Tlidi, and P. Couteron (2002), Localized vegetation patches: A self-organized response to resource scarcity, Phys. Rev. E, Part 1, 66(1), 010901.
  • Lejeune, O., M. Tlidi, and R. Lefever (2004), Vegetation spots and stripes: Dissipative structures in arid landscapes, Int. J. Quantum Chem., 98(2), 261271.
  • Leppanen, T. (2005), The theory of Turing pattern formation, in Current Topics in Physics in Honor of Sir Roger Elliot, edited by K. Kaski, and R. A. Barrio, pp. 190227, Imperial Coll. Press, London.
  • Li, J., G. S. Okin, L. Alvarez, and H. Epstein (2007), Quantitative effects of vegetation cover on wind erosion and soil nutrient loss in a desert grassland of southern New Mexico, USA, Biogeochemistry, 85(3), 317332.
  • Loescher, H. W., S. F. Oberbauer, H. L. Gholz, and D. B. Clark (2003), Environmental controls on net ecosystem-level carbon exchange and productivity in a Central American tropical wet forest, Global Change Biol., 9(3), 396412.
  • Ludwig, J. A., and D. J. Tongway (1995), Spatial-organization of landscapes and its function in semiarid woodlands, Australia, Landscape Ecol., 10(1), 5163.
  • Mabbutt, J. A., and P. C. Fanning (1987), Vegetation banding in arid Western Australia, J. Arid Environ., 12(1), 4159.
  • Macfadyen, W. A. (1950a), Soil and vegetation in British Somaliland, Nature, 165, 121.
  • Macfadyen, W. A. (1950b), Vegetation patterns in the semi-desert plains of British Somaliland, Geogr. J., 116, 199210.
  • Maestre, F. T., J. F. Reynolds, E. Huber-Sannwald, J. Herrick, and M. Stafford-Smith (2006), Understanding global desertification: Biophysical and socioeconomic dimensions of hydrology, in Dryland Ecohydrology, edited by P. D'Odorico, and A. Porporato, pp. 315332, Springer, Berlin.
  • Malamud, B. D., G. Morein, and D. L. Turcotte (1998), Forest fires: An example of self-organized critical behavior, Science, 281(5384), 18401842.
  • Mandelbrot, B. B. (1984), The Fractal Geometry of Nature, Freeman, New York.
  • Manor, A., and N. M. Shnerb (2008), Facilitation, competition, and vegetation patchiness: From scale free distribution to patterns, J. Theor. Biol., 253(4), 838842.
  • Martens, S. N., D. D. Breshears, C. W. Meyer, and F. J. Barnes (1997), Scales of above-ground and below-ground competition in a semi-arid woodland detected from spatial pattern, J. Veg. Sci., 8(5), 655664.
  • Mauchamp, A., C. Montana, J. Lepart, and S. Rambal (1993), Ecotone dependent recruitment of a desert shrub, Fluorensia Cernua, in vegetation stripes, Oikos, 68(1), 107116.
  • Meinhardt, H. (1982), Models of Biological Pattern Formation, Academic, London.
  • Meron, E., E. Gilad, J. von Hardenberg, M. Shachak, and Y. Zarmi (2004), Vegetation patterns along a rainfall gradient, Chaos Solitons Fractals, 19(2), 367376.
  • Meron, E., H. Yizhaq, and E. Gilad (2007), Localized structures in dryland vegetation: Forms and functions, Chaos, 17(3), 037109, doi:10.1063/1.2767246.
  • Montana, C. (1992), The colonization of bare areas in 2-phase mosaics of an arid ecosystem, J. Ecol., 80(2), 315327.
  • Montana, C., J. Lopez-Portillo, and A. Mauchamp (1990), The response of 2 woody species to the conditions created by a shifting ecotone in an arid ecosystem, J. Ecol., 78(3), 789798.
  • Morse, D. R., J. H. Lawton, M. M. Dodson, and M. H. Williamson (1985), Fractal dimension of vegetation and the distribution of arthropod body lengths, Nature, 314(6013), 731733.
  • Murray, J. D. (2002), Mathematical Biology, Springer, Berlin.
  • Murray, J. D., and P. K. Maini (1989), Pattern formation mechanisms—A comparison of reaction diffusion and mechanochemical models, in Cell to Cell Signaling: From Experiments to Theoretical Models, pp. 159170, Academic, New York.
  • Neiring, W. A., R. H. Whittaker, and C. H. Lowe (1963), The Saguaro: A population in relation to environment, Science, 142, 1523.
  • Okayasu, T., and Y. Aizawa (2001), Systematic analysis of periodic vegetation patterns, Prog. Theor. Phys., 106(4), 705720.
  • Okin, G. S., and D. A. Gillette (2001), Distribution of vegetation in wind-dominated landscapes: Implications for wind erosion modeling and landscape processes, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D9), 96739683.
  • Okin, G. S., B. Murray, and W. H. Schlesinger (2001), Degradation of sandy arid shrubland environments: Observations, process modelling, and management implications, J. Arid Environ., 47(2), 123144.
  • Okin, G. S., D. A. Gillette, and J. E. Herrick (2006), Multi-scale controls on and consequences of aeolian processes in landscape change in arid and semi-arid environments, J. Arid Eviron., 65(2), 253275.
  • Oster, G. F., and J. D. Murray (1989), Pattern-formation models and developmental constraints, J. Exp. Zool., 251(2), 186202.
  • Parrondo, J. M. R., C. van den Broeck, J. Buceta, and F. J. DeLaRubia (1996), Noise-induced spatial patterns, Physica A, 224(1–2), 153161.
  • Perry, J. N. (1998), Measures of spatial pattern for counts, Ecology, 79(3), 10081017.
  • Platten, J. K., and J.-C. Legros (1984), Convection in Liquids, Springer, Berlin.
  • Porporato, A., and P. D'Odorico (2004), Phase transitions driven by state-dependent Poisson noise, Phys. Rev. Lett., 92(11), 110601.
  • Puigdefabregas, J., F. Gallart, O. Biaciotto, M. Allogia, and G. del Barrio (1999), Banded vegetation patterning in a subantarctic forest of Tierra del Fuego, as an outcome of the interaction between wind and tree growth, Acta Oecol., 20(3), 135146.
  • Ravi, S., P. D'Odorico, and G. S. Okin (2007), Hydrologic and aeolian controls on vegetation patterns in arid landscapes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L24S23, doi:10.1029/2007GL031023.
  • Ravi, S., P. D'Odorico, L. Wang, and S. Collins (2008), Form and function of grass ring patterns in arid grasslands: The role of abiotic controls, Oecologia, 158, 545555, doi:10.1007/s00442-008-1164-1.
  • Richards, J. H., and M. M. Caldwell (1987), Hydraulic lift—Substantial nocturnal water transport between soil layers by Artemisia-Tridentata roots, Oecologia, 73(4), 486489.
  • Ridolfi, L., P. D'Odorico, and F. Laio (2006), Effect of vegetation-water table feedbacks on the stability and resilience of plant ecosystems, Water Resour. Res., 42, W01201, doi:10.1029/2005WR004444.
  • Ridolfi, L., F. Laio, and P. D'Odorico (2008), Fertility island formation and evolution in dryland ecosystems, Ecol. Soc., 13(1), 5.
  • Rietkerk, M., and J. van de Koppel (2008), Regular pattern formation in real ecosystems, Trends Ecol. Evol., 23(3), 169175.
  • Rietkerk, M., M. C. Boerlijst, F. van Langevelde, R. HilleRisLambers, J. van de Koppel, L. Kumar, H. H. T. Prins, and A. M. de Roos (2002), Self-organization of vegetation in arid ecosystems, Am. Nat., 160(4), 524530.
  • Rietkerk, M., S. C. Dekker, P. C. de Ruiter, and J. van de Koppel (2004), Self-organized patchiness and catastrophic shifts in ecosystems, Science, 305(5692), 19261929.
  • Rodriguez-Iturbe, I. (2000), Ecohydrology: A hydrologic perspective of climate-soil-vegetation dynamics, Water Resour. Res., 36(1), 39.
  • Rodriguez-Iturbe, I., and A. Rinaldo (2001), Fractal River Basins: Chance and Self-Organization, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, U. K.
  • Rohani, P., T. J. Lewis, D. Grunbaum, and G. D. Ruxton (1997), Spatial self-organization in ecology: Pretty patterns or robust reality? Trends Ecol. Evol., 12(2), 7074.
  • Rovinsky, A. B., and M. Menzinger (1992), Chemical-instability induced by a differential flow, Phys. Rev. Lett., 69(8), 11931196.
  • Rovinsky, A. B., and A. M. Zhabotinsky (1984), Mechanism and mathematical-model of the oscillating bromate-ferroin-bromomalonic acid reaction, J. Phys. Chem., 88(25), 60816084.
  • Ruxton, G. D., and P. Rohani (1996), The consequences of stochasticity for self-organized spatial dynamics, persistence and coexistence in spatially extended host-parasitoid communities, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B, 263(1370), 625631.
  • Saco, P. M., G. R. Willgoose, and G. R. Hancock (2006), Eco-geomorphology and vegetation patterns in arid and semi-arid regions, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 3, 25592593.
  • Sagues, F., J. M. Sancho, and J. Garcia-Ojalvo (2007), Spatiotemporal order out of noise, Rev. Mod. Phys., 79(3), 829882.
  • Satake, A., T. Kubo, and Y. Iwasa (1998), Noise-induce regularity of spatial wave patterns in subalpine Abies forests, J. Theor. Biol., 195(4), 465479.
  • Sato, K., and Y. Iwasa (1993), Modeling of wave regeneration in sub-alpine Abies forests—Population-dynamics with spatial structure, Ecology, 74(5), 15381550.
  • Scanlon, T. M., K. K. Caylor, S. A. Levin, and I. Rodriguez-Iturbe (2007), Positive feedbacks promote power-law clustering of Kalahari vegetation, Nature, 449(7159), 209–U4.
  • Schimel, D. S., E. F. Kelly, C. Yonker, R. Aguilar, and R. D. Heil (1985), Effects of erosional processes on nutrient cycling in semiarid landscapes, in Planetary Ecology, edited by D. E. Caldwell, J. A. Brierley, and C. L. Brierley, pp. 571580, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
  • Schlesinger, W. H., J. F. Reynolds, G. L. Cunningham, L. F. Huenneke, W. M. Jarrell, R. A. Virginia, and W. G. Whitford (1990), Biological feedbacks in global desertification, Science, 247(4946), 10431048.
  • Scholes, R. J., and S. R. Archer (1997), Tree-grass interactions in savannas, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 28, 517544.
  • Sherratt, J. A. (2005), An analysis of vegetation stripe formation in semi-arid landscapes, J. Math. Biol., 51(2), 183197.
  • Shnerb, N. M., P. Sarah, H. Lavee, and S. Solomon (2003), Reactive glass and vegetation patterns, Phys. Rev. Lett., 90(3), 038101.
  • Slatyer, R. O. (1961), Methodology of a water balance study conducted on a desert woodland (Acacia aneura F. Muell.) community in central Australia, in Plant-Water Relationship in Arid and Semiarid Conditions, Arid Zone Res., vol. 16, pp. 1526, U. N. Educ. Sci., and Cult. Organ., Paris.
  • Smit, G. N., and N. F. G. Rethman (2000), The influence of tree thinning on the soil water in a semi-arid savanna of southern Africa, J. Arid Environ., 44(1), 4159.
  • Solé, R. V., and S. C. Manrubia (1995), Are rain-forests self-organized in a critical-state? J. Theor. Biol., 173(1), 3140.
  • Soriano, A., O. E. Sala, and S. B. Perelman (1994), Patch structure and dynamics in Patagonian arid steppe, Vegetatio, 111(2), 127135.
  • Spagnolo, B., D. Valenti, and A. Fiasconaro (2004), Noise in ecosystems: A short review, Math. Biosci., 1(1), 185211.
  • Sprott, J. C., J. Bolliger, and D. J. Mladenoff (2002), Self-organized criticality in forest-landscape evolution, Phys. Lett. A, 297(3–4), 267271.
  • Staliunas, K., and V. J. Sanchez-Morcillo (2000), Turing patterns in nonlinear optics, Opt. Commun., 117(1–6), 389395.
  • Thiery, J. M., J.-M. D'Herbes, and C. Valentin (1995), A model simulating the genesis of banded vegetation patterns in Niger, J. Ecol., 83(3), 497507.
  • Thompson, S., and G. Katul (2008), Plant propagation fronts and wind dispersal: An analytical model to upscale from seconds to decades using superstatistics, Am. Nat., 171(4), 468479.
  • Tongway, D. J., and J. A. Ludwig (1990), Vegetation and soil patterning in semiarid mulga lands of Eastern Australia, Aust. J. Ecol., 15(1), 2334.
  • Turing, A. M. (1952), The chemical basis of morphogenesis, Philos. Trans. R. Soc., Ser. B, 237, 3772.
  • Ursino, N. (2005), The influence of soil properties on the formation of unstable vegetation patterns on hillsides of semiarid catchments, Adv. Water Res., 28(9), 956963.
  • Valentin, C., J.-M. D'Herbes, and J. Poesen (1999), Soil and water components of banded vegetation patterns, Catena, 37(1–2), 124.
  • van de Koppel, J., and M. Rietkerk (2004), Spatial interactions and resilience in arid ecosystems, Am. Nat., 163(1), 113121.
  • van de Koppel, J., et al. (2002), Spatial heterogeneity and irreversible vegetation change in semiarid grazing systems, Am. Nat., 159(2), 209218.
  • van de Koppel, J., M. Rietkerk, N. Dankers, and P. M. J. Herman (2005), Scale-dependent feedback and regular spatial patterns in young mussel beds, Am. Nat., 165(3), E66E77.
  • van de Koppel, J., A. H. Altieri, B. S. Silliman, J. F. Bruno, and M. D. Bertness (2006), Scale-dependent interactions and community structure on cobble beaches, Ecol. Lett., 9(1), 4550.
  • van den Broeck, C. (1983), On the relation between white shot noise, Gaussian white noise, and the dichotomic Markov process, J. Stat. Phys., 31(3), 467483.
  • van den Broeck, C., J. M. R. Parrondo, and R. Toral (1994), Noise-induced nonequilibrium phase transition, Phys. Rev. Lett., 73(25), 33953398.
  • van den Broeck, C., J. M. R. Parrondo, R. Toral, and R. Kawai (1997), Nonequilibrium phase transitions induced by multiplicative noise, Phys. Rev. E, 55(4), 40844094.
  • van der Meulen, F., and J. W. Morris (1979), Striped vegetation patterns in a Transvaal savanna, Geol. Ecol. Trop., 3, 253266.
  • van Kampen, N. G. (1981), Ito versus Stratonovich, J. Stat. Phys., 24, 175187.
  • van Langevelde, F., et al. (2003), Effects of fire and herbivory on the stability of savanna ecosystems, Ecology, 84(2), 337350.
  • Vetaas, O. R. (1992), Micro-site effects of trees and shrubs in dry savannas, J. Veg. Sci., 3(3), 337344.
  • von Hardenberg, J., E. Meron, M. Shachak, and Y. Zarmi (2001), Diversity of vegetation patterns and desertification, Phys. Rev. Lett., 87(19), 198101.
  • Walker, B. H., D. Ludwig, C. S. Holling, and R. M. Peterman (1981), Stability of semi-arid savanna grazing systems, J. Ecol., 69(2), 473498.
  • Watt, A. S. (1947), Pattern and process in plant community, J. Ecol., 35, 122.
  • Webster, R., and F. T. Maestre (2004), Spatial analysis of semi-arid patchy vegetation by the cumulative distribution of patch boundary spacings and transition probabilities, Environ. Ecol. Stat., 11(3), 257281.
  • West, N. E. (1990), Structure and function of microphytic soil crusts in wildland ecosystems of arid to semi-arid regions, Adv. Ecol. Res., 20, 179223.
  • White, L. P. (1969), Vegetation arcs in Jordan, J. Ecol., 57, 461464.
  • White, L. P. (1970), Brousse-tigree patterns in southern Niger, J. Ecol., 58(2), 549553.
  • White, L. P. (1971), Vegetation stripes on sheet wash surfaces, J. Ecol., 59(2), 615622.
  • Wickens, G. E., and F. W. Collier (1971), Some vegetation patterns in Republic of Sudan, Geoderma, 6(1), 4359.
  • Wilde, S. A., R. S. Steinbrenner, R. C. Dosen, and D. T. Pronin (1953), Influence of forest cover on the state of the ground water table, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc., 17, 6567.
  • Wilson, J. B., and A. D. Q. Agnew (1992), Positive-feedback switches in plant communities, Adv. Ecol. Res., 23, 263336.
  • Worrall, G. A. (1959), The Butana grass patterns, J. Soil Sci., 10, 3453.
  • Worrall, G. A. (1960), Patchiness in vegetation in the northern Sudan, J. Ecol., 48, 107115.
  • Yizhaq, H., E. Gilad, and E. Meron (2005), Banded vegetation: Biological productivity and resilience, Physica A, 356(1), 139144.
  • Yokozawa, M., Y. Kubota, and T. Hara (1998), Effects of competition mode on spatial pattern dynamics in plant communities, Ecol. Modell., 106(1), 116.
  • Yokozawa, M., Y. Kubota, and T. Hara (1999), Effects of competition mode on the spatial pattern dynamics of wave regeneration in subalpine tree stands, Ecol. Modell., 118(1), 7386.
  • Zeng, Q.-C., and X. D. Zeng (1996), An analytical dynamic model of grass field ecosystem with two variables, Ecol. Modell., 85(2–3), 187196.
  • Zeng, X., and X. Zeng (2007), Transition and pattern diversity in arid and semiarid grassland: A modeling study, J. Geophys. Res., 112, G04008, doi:10.1029/2007JG000411.
  • Zeng, X., S. S. P. Shen, X. Zeng, and R. E. Dickinson (2004), Multiple equilibrium states and the abrupt transitions in a dynamical system of soil water interacting with vegetation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L05501, doi:10.1029/2003GL018910.
  • Zeng, Y., and G. P. Malanson (2006), Endogenous fractal dynamics at alpine treeline ecotones, Geogr. Anal., 38(3), 271287.
  • Zhonghuai, H., Y. Lingfa, X. Zuo, and X. Houwen (1998), Noise induced pattern transition and spatiotemporal stochastic resonance, Phys. Rev. Lett., 81(14), 28542857.