The future response of African ecosystems to global change is highly uncertain. North Africa is one of the regions where many state-of-the-art climate models fail to reproduce major features of the monsoonal precipitation system, and consequently, projections of future changes are not coherent among different models. A 3-day workshop brought together 50 international experts in atmosphere physics, African paleoclimate, and archaeology. The workshop aimed to explore the role of Africa in global climate change throughout the geological past, the present, and the future. The following principal recommendations resulted from the workshop.