Earth system science has inherent interdisciplinary aspects. In the marine environment, biogeochemical, ecological, and physical climate science processes interact strongly. Examples of these interactions are feedbacks between variations in the marine carbon cycle and radiative forcing in the atmosphere, variations in the distribution of tuna related to El Niño Southern Oscillation, and the distribution of nutrients in ventilated water masses that are subject to climate variability.
International research programs recognize the importance of these interactions but are organized primarily along disciplinary sciences. The Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) project of the World Climate Research Program has a focus on the physical aspects of the climate system, and the Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research (IMBER) and Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (GLOBEC) projects of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme focus on both biogeochemistry and ecosystems research. In an attempt to link research on physical climate variability with marine environmental research, IMBER, GLOBEC, and CLIVAR organized training for young marine scientists in Brest, France.