Reply to Comment on “Long-Term Global Heating From Energy Use”

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Abstract

I was completely unaware of Budyko's 1969 article in a journal unfamiliar to most astrophysicists, nor was I privy to policy-maker concerns inside the Soviet Union more than 40 years ago. What I am sure of is that my article does not predict, as claimed by Budyko, that humankind's waste heat on Earth will equal that of the Sun within 150 years—far from it. Furthermore, my article addresses not merely waste heat; my argument is that every energy-using gadget dissipates all of its energy at some temperature, whether it is efficient or not.

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