SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Apps, M. J., W. A. Kurz, R. J. Luxmoore, L. O. Nilsson, R. A. Sedjo, R. Schmidt, L. G. Simpson, and T. S. Vinson (1993), Boreal forests and tundra, Water Air Soil Pollut., 70(1–4), 3953, doi:10.1007/BF01104987.
  • Arnalds, O., and E. Gretarsson (2001), Generalized Soil Map of Iceland, 2nd ed., Agric. Res. Inst., Reykjavik.
  • Batjes, N. H. (1996), Total carbon and nitrogen in the soils of the world, Eur. J. Soil Sci., 47, 151163, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2389.1996.tb01386.x.
  • Bhatti, J. S., M. J. Apps, and C. Tarnocai (2002), Estimates of soil organic carbon pools in central Canada using three different approaches, Can. J. For. Res., 32, 805812, doi:10.1139/x01-122.
  • Bockheim, J. G. (2007), Importance of cryoturbation in redistributing organic carbon in permafrost-affected soils, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 71, 13351342, doi:10.2136/sssaj2006.0414N.
  • Botch, M. S., K. I. Kobak, T. S. Vinson, and T. P. Kolchugina (1995), Carbon pools and accumulation in peatlands of the former Soviet Union, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 9(1), 3746, doi:10.1029/94GB03156.
  • Brown, J., O. J. Ferrians Jr., J. A. Heginbottom, and E. S. Melinkov (1997), Circum-Arctic map of permafrost and ground ice conditions, scale 1:10,000,000, U. S. Geol. Surv., Washington, D. C.
  • Camill, P. (2005), Permafrost thaw accelerates in boreal peatlands during late-20th century climate warming, Clim. Change, 68, 135152, doi:10.1007/s10584-005-4785-y.
  • Canadell, J. G., D. Pataki, R. Gifford, R. A. Houghton, Y. Luo, M. R. Raupach, P. Smith, and W. Steffen (2007), Saturation of the terrestrial carbon sink, in Terrestrial Ecosystems in a Changing World, edited by J. G. Canadell, D. E. Pataki, and L. F. Pitelka, chap. 6, pp. 5978, Springer, Berlin.
  • Cryosol Working Group (2004), Northern and Mid-Latitude Soil Database, version 1, http://www.daac.ornl.gov, Oak Ridge Natl. Lab., Oak Ridge, Tenn.
  • Davidson, E. A., and I. A. Janssens (2006), Temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition and feedbacks to climate change, Nature, 440, 165173, doi:10.1038/nature04514.
  • Dorzhgotov, D., and N. A. Nogina (1990), Khors (The soil map of Mongolia), in Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Ard Uls, Undesnii Atlas (National Atlas of the Mongolian People's Republic), edited by N. Orshikh, N. A. Morgunova, and M. N. Rodionov, pp. 6667, BNMAU-yn Shinzhlekh Ukhaany Akad., Ulan Bator.
  • Dutta, K., E. A. G. Schuur, J. C. Neff, and S. A. Zimov (2006), Potential carbon release from permafrost soils of northeastern Siberia, Global Change Biol., 12, 23362351, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01259.x.
  • Efremov, S. P., T. T. Efremova, and N. V. Melentyeva (1998), Carbon storage in peatland ecosystems, in Carbon Storage in Forests and Peatlands of Russia, edited by V. A. Alexeyev, and R. A. Birdsey, Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-244, pp. 6976, U. S. Dep. of Agric For. Serv., Northeast. Res. Stn., Radnor, Pa.
  • Eswaran, H., E. Van den Berg, and P. Reich (1993), Organic carbon in soils of the world, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 57, 192194.
  • European Soil Bureau (1999), The European Soil Database, version 1.0 [CD-ROM], Joint Res. Cent., Ispra, Italy.
  • Fridland, V. M. (1988), Pochvennaya karta RSFSR (Soil map of the RSFSR), scale 1:2,500,000, V. V. Dokuchayev Soils Inst., Admin. for Geod. and Cartogr., Gosagroprom, Moscow.
  • Friedlingstein, P., et al. (2006), Climate-carbon cycle feedback analysis: Results from the C4MIP model intercomparison, J. Clim., 19, 33373353, doi:10.1175/JCLI3800.1.
  • Gilmanov, T. G., and W. C. Oechel (1995), New estimates of organic matter reserves and net primary productivity of the North American tundra ecosystems, J. Biogeogr., 22(4–5), 723741, doi:10.2307/2845975.
  • Gorham, E. (1991), Northern peatlands: Role in the carbon cycle and probable responses to climatic warming, Ecol. Appl., 1(2), 182195, doi:10.2307/1941811.
  • Gruber, N., P. Friedlingstein, C. B. Field, R. Valentini, M. Heimann, J. E. Richey, P. Romero-Lankao, E.-D. Schulze, and C.-T. A. Chen (2004), The vulnerability of the carbon cycle in the 21st Century: An assessment of carbon-climate-human interactions, in The Global Carbon Cycle: Integrating Humans, Climate, and the Natural World, edited by C. B. Field, and M. R. Raupach, pp. 4576, Island Press, Washington, D. C.
  • Jakobsen, B. H., and A. Eiby (1997), A soil map of Greenland, in 2nd International Conference on Cryopedology, edited by I. V. Zaboeva, p. 43, Inst. of Biol., Komi Sci. Cent., Russ. Acad. of Sci., Syktyvkar, Russia.
  • Jobbágy, E. G., and R. B. Jackson (2000), The vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and its relation to climate and vegetation, Ecol. Appl., 10(2), 423436, doi:10.1890/1051-0761(2000)010[0423:TVDOSO]2.0.CO;2.
  • Jorgenson, M. T., Y. L. Shur, and E. R. Pullman (2006), Abrupt increase in permafrost degradation in Arctic Alaska, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L02503, doi:10.1029/2005GL024960.
  • Khvorostyanov, D. V., P. Ciais, G. Krinners, S. Zimov, C. Corradi, and G. Guggenberger (2008), Vulnerability of permafrost carbon to global warming. Part II: Sensitivity of permafrost carbon stock to global warming, Tellus, Ser. B, 60, 265275.
  • Kuhry, P., G. G. Mazhitova, P.-A. Forest, S. V. Deneva, T. Virtanen, and S. Kultti (2002), Upscaling soil organic carbon estimates for the Usa Basin (northeast European Russia) using GIS-based landcover and soil classification schemes, Dan. J. Geogr., 102, 1125.
  • Lawrence, D. M., A. G. Slater, V. E. Romanovsky, and D. J. Nicolsky (2008), Sensitivity of a model projection of near-surface permafrost degradation to soil column depth and representation of soil organic matter, J. Geophys. Res., 113, F02011, doi:10.1029/2007JF000883.
  • Mackenzie River Basin Board (2004), Mackenzie River Basin, State Aquat. Ecosyst. Rep. 2003, 208 pp., Fort Smith, NT, Canada. (Available at http://www.swa.ca/Publications/AquaticEcosystem.asp).
  • Mazhitova, G. G., V. G. Kazakov, E. V. Lopatin, and T. Virtanen (2003), Geographic information system and soil carbon estimates for the Usa River Basin, Komi Republic, Eurasian Soil Sci., 36(2), 123135.
  • Myers-Smith, I. H., J. W. Harden, M. Wilmking, C. C. Fuller, A. D. McGuire, and F. S. Chapin III (2008), Wetland succession in a permafrost collapse: Interactions between fire and thermokarst, Biogeosciences, 5, 12731286.
  • Naumov, E. M. (1993), Soil map of the north-east of Eurasia, scale 1:2,500,000, V. V. Dokuchaev Soil Inst., Moscow.
  • Oechel, W. C., S. J. Hastings, G. Vourlitis, M. Jenkins, G. Riechers, and N. Grulke (1993), Recent change of Arctic tundra ecosystems from a net carbon dioxide sink to a source, Nature, 361, 520523.
  • Pavlov, V. K., et al. (1994), The East Siberian Sea: Hydrometeorological Regime of the Kara, Laptev, and East Siberian Seas, Arctic and Antarct. Res. Inst., St. Petersburg, Russia.
  • Payette, S., A. Delwaide, M. Caccianiga, and M. Beauchemin (2004), Accelerated thawing of subarctic peatland permafrost over the last 50 years, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L18208, doi:10.1029/2004GL020358.
  • Post, W. M., W. R. Emanuel, P. J. Zinke, and A. G. Stangenberger (1982), Soil carbon pools and world life zones, Nature, 298, 156159, doi:10.1038/298156a0.
  • Raupach, M. R., and J. G. Canadell (2008), Observing a vulnerable carbon cycle, in The Continental-Scale Greenhouse Gas Balance of Europe, edited by H. Dolman, R. Valentini, and A. Freibauer, pp. 532, Springer, Berlin.
  • Schirrmeister, L., C. Siegert, T. Kuznetsova, S. Kuzmina, A. Andreev, F. Kienast, H. Meyer, and A. Bobrov (2002), Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic records from permafrost deposits in the Arctic region of northern Siberia, Quat. Int., 89, 97118, doi:10.1016/S1040-6182(01)00083-0.
  • Schuur, E. A. G., et al. (2008), Vulnerability of permafrost carbon to climate change: Implications for the global carbon cycle, BioScience, 58, 701714, doi:10.1641/B580807.
  • Sheldrick, B. H. (1984), Analytical Methods Manual, 212 pp., Land Resour. Res. Inst., Res. Branch, Agric. Can., Ottawa.
  • Sheng, Y., L. C. Smith, G. M. MacDonald, K. V. Kremenetski, K. E. Frey, A. A. Velichko, M. Lee, D. W. Beilman, and P. Dubinin (2004), A high-resolution GIS-based inventory of the west Siberian peat carbon pool, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18, GB3004, doi:10.1029/2003GB002190.
  • Smith, L. C., G. M. MacDonald, K. E. Frey, A. Velichko, K. Kremenetski, O. Borisova, P. Dubinin, and R. R. Forster (2000), U.S.-Russian venture probes Siberian peatlands' sensitivity to climate, Eos Trans. AGU, 81(43), 497, doi:10.1029/00EO00357.
  • Smith, L. C., G. M. Macdonald, A. A. Velichko, D. W. Beilman, O. K. Borisova, K. E. Frey, K. V. Kremenetski, and Y. Sheng (2004), Siberian peatlands: A net carbon sink and global methane source since the early Holocene, Science, 303, 353356, doi:10.1126/science.1090553.
  • Soil Survey Staff (1999), Soil Taxonomy: A Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys, Agric. Handb., vol. 436, 2nd ed., 869 pp., U. S. Dep. of Agric., Washington, D. C.
  • Sombroek, W. G., F. O. Nachtergaele, and A. Hebel (1993), Amounts, dynamics and sequestrations of carbon in tropical and subtropical soils, Ambio, 22, 417426.
  • Stolbovoi, V. (2000), Carbon pools in tundra soils of Russia: Improving data reliability, in Advances in Soil Science, Global Climate Change and Cold Regions Ecosystems, edited by R. Lal, J. M. Kimble, and B. A. Stewart, pp. 3958, Lewis, Washington, D. C.
  • Tarnocai, C., and V. Stolbovoy (2006), Northern peatlands: Their characteristics, development and sensitivity to climate change, in Peatlands: Evolution and Records of Environmental and Climate Changes, Dev. Earth Surface Processes, vol. 9, edited by I. P. Martini, A. Martinez Cortizas, and W. Chesworth, chap. 2, pp. 1751, Elsevier, Amsterdam.
  • Tarnocai, C., C. A. S. Smith, and C. A. Fox (1993), International Tour of Permafrost Affected Soils: The Yukon and Northwest Territories of Canada, 197 pp., Cent. for Land and Biol. Resour. Res., Res. Branch, Agric. Can., Ottawa.
  • Tarnocai, C., J. Kimble, and G. Broll (2003), Determining carbon stocks in Cryosols using the Northern and Mid Latitudes Soil Database, in Permafrost, vol. 2, edited by M. Philips, S. Springman, and L. U. Arenson, pp. 11291134, A. A. Balkema, Lisse, Netherlands.
  • Thompson, C. C., A. D. McGuire, J. S. Clein, F. S. Chapin III, and J. Beringer (2006), Net carbon exchange across the Arctic tundra-boreal forest transition in Alaska 1981–2000, Mitigation Adaptation Strategies Global Change, 11, 805827, doi:10.1007/s11027-005-9016-3.
  • Uspanov, U. U. (Ed.) (1976), Pochvennaya karta Kazakhskoy SSR (Soil map of the Kazakh SSR), scale 1:2,500,000, Glavnoe Upravlenie Geodezii Kartografii, Moscow.
  • Zhuang, Q., J. M. Melillo, M. C. Sarofim, D. W. Kicklighter, A. D. McGuire, B. S. Felzer, A. Sokolov, R. G. Prinn, P. A. Steudler, and S. Hu (2006), CO2 and CH4 exchanges between land ecosystems and the atmosphere in northern high latitudes over the 21st century, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L17403, doi:10.1029/2006GL026972.
  • Zimov, S. A., S. P. Davydov, G. M. Zimova, A. I. Davydova, E. A. G. Schuur, K. Dutta, and F. S. Chapin III (2006a), Permafrost carbon: Stock and decomposability of a globally significant carbon pool, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L20502, doi:10.1029/2006GL027484.
  • Zimov, S. A., E. A. G. Schuur, and F. S. Chapin III (2006b), Permafrost and the global carbon budget, Science, 312, 16121613, doi:10.1126/science.1128908.