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Keywords:

  • circulation;
  • Lake Michigan

[1] Maps of climatological circulation in Lake Michigan are presented for the first time. They are based on ten years continuous modeling of lake hydrodynamics from 1998–2007 using observed meteorological data as the forcing function. Model results show a remarkably stable large-scale cyclonic circulation pattern during both stratified and unstratified conditions. Lake-averaged mean current speed is about 2 cm/s, but currents can reach 10 cm/s in some locations. The model results are confirmed by long-term current observations.