Phenology of coastal upwelling in the California Current



[1] Changes in the amplitude and phasing of seasonal events (phenology) can affect the functioning of marine ecosystems. Phenology plays a particularly critical role in eastern boundary ecosystems, which are driven largely by the seasonal cycle of coastal upwelling. Here we develop and describe a set of indicators that quantify the timing, evolution, intensity, and duration of coastal upwelling in the California Current large marine ecosystem (CCLME). There is significant interannual variability in upwelling characteristics during 1967–2007, with extended periods of high (1970s, 1998–2004) and low (1980–1995) seasonally-integrated upwelling and a trend towards a later and shorter upwelling season in the northern CCLME. El Niño years were characterized by delayed and weak upwelling in the central CCLME. Understanding the causes and ecosystem consequences of phenological changes in coastal upwelling is critical, as climate models project significant variability in the amplitude and phase of coastal upwelling under varying climate change scenarios.