An extensive set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other gas phase species were measured in situ aboard the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown as the ship sailed in the Gulf of Mexico and the Houston and Galveston Bay (HGB) area as part of the Texas Air Quality (TexAQS)/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS) conducted from July–September 2006. The magnitudes of the reactivities of CH4, CO, VOCs, and NO2 with the hydroxyl radical, OH, were determined in order to quantify the contributions of these compounds to potential ozone formation. The average total OH reactivity (ROH,TOTAL) increased from 1.01 s−1 in the central gulf to 10.1 s−1 in the HGB area as a result of the substantial increase in the contribution from VOCs and NO2. The increase in the measured concentrations of reactive VOCs in the HGB area compared to the central gulf was explained by the impact of industrial emissions, the regional distribution of VOCs, and the effects of local meteorology. By compensating for the effects of boundary layer mixing, the diurnal profiles of the OH reactivity were used to characterize the source signatures and relative magnitudes of biogenic, anthropogenic (urban + industrial), and oxygenated VOCs as a function of the time of day. The source of reactive oxygenated VOCs (e.g., formaldehyde) was determined to be almost entirely from secondary production. The secondary formation of oxygenated VOCs, in addition to the continued emissions of reactive anthropogenic VOCs, served to sustain elevated levels of OH reactivity throughout the time of peak ozone production.