Uniform and nonuniform V-shaped planar arrays for 2-D direction-of-arrival estimation



[1] In this paper, isotropic and directional uniform and nonuniform V-shaped arrays are considered for azimuth and elevation direction-of-arrival (DOA) angle estimation simultaneously. It is shown that the uniform isotropic V-shaped arrays (UI V arrays) have no angle coupling between the azimuth and elevation DOA. The design of the UI V arrays is investigated, and closed form expressions are presented for the parameters of the UI V arrays and nonuniform V arrays. These expressions allow one to find the isotropic V angle for different array types. The DOA performance of the UI V array is compared with the uniform circular array (UCA) for correlated signals and in case of mutual coupling between array elements. The modeling error for the sensor positions is also investigated. It is shown that V array and circular array have similar robustness for the position errors while the performance of UI V array is better than the UCA for correlated source signals and when there is mutual coupling. Nonuniform V-shaped isotropic arrays are investigated which allow good DOA performance with limited number of sensors. Furthermore, a new design method for the directional V-shaped arrays is proposed. This method is based on the Cramer-Rao Bound for joint estimation where the angle coupling effect between the azimuth and elevation DOA angles is taken into account. The design method finds an optimum angle between the linear subarrays of the V array. The proposed method can be used to obtain directional arrays with significantly better DOA performance.