Impact and mitigation of ionospheric anomalies on ground-based augmentation of GNSS



[1] This paper describes the impact that extreme ionospheric spatial gradients occurring during severe ionospheric storms have on Global Navigation Satellite System Ground Based Augmentation Systems and how the U.S. Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS) mitigates the integrity risk due to these events. Gradients in slant ionospheric delay of as large as 425 mm/km over baselines of 40–100 km have been observed in the United States during ionospheric storms since April 2000 by both the U.S. Wide Area Augmentation System and the network of Continuously Operating Reference Stations receivers. Because ionospheric gradients affecting a LAAS site may not be observed by the LAAS Ground Facility (LGF) before users are affected, a simulation-based method has been developed to determine, in near real time, which potential LAAS user geometries would be unacceptably threatened by a hypothetical worst-case ionosphere gradient. Geometries of this type are made unavailable to LAAS users by having the LGF inflate the broadcast ionospheric-gradient sigma, which increases the Vertical Protection Level of the unacceptable geometries so that they exceed the allowed Vertical Alert Limit; thus ensuring user safety.