The advent of real-time global ground- and space-based GPS measurements is expected to revolutionize the accuracy of ionospheric specification, nowcast, and forecast. Recently, the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center developed a new data assimilation product [Fuller-Rowell, 2005] that characterizes ionospheric TEC over the United States. In the next years, the real-time characterization of the global ionosphere is expected to become a standard product. This characterization will rely heavily on data from GPS measurements, but it will be enhanced by the real-time measurements from other sensors.
As technology advances, societies of tomorrow are expected only to increase their need for highly accurate communications and navigation systems. Through collecting new data and finding new ways of analyzing ground- and space-based GPS data to minimize signal propagation errors, scientists and operators will be sure to meet these future needs.
Aarons, J., M. Mendillo, R. Yantosca, and E. Kudeki (1996), GPS phase fluctuations in the equatorial region during the MISETA campaign, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 26,851–26,862.
Beach, T. L., and P. M. Kintner (1999), Simultaneous GPS observations of equatorial scintillations and total electron content fluctuations, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 22,553–22,565.
Berners-Lee, T., and M. Fischetti (1999), Weaving the Web: The Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web by Its Inventor, HarperCollins, New York.
Bishop, G. J., J. A. Klobuchar, and P. H. Doherty (1985), Multipath effects on the determination of absolute ionospheric time delay from GPS signals, Radio Sci., 20, 388–396.
Bishop, G. J., D. J. Jacavanco, D. S. Coco, C. Coker, J. A. Klobuchar, E. J. Weber, and P. H. Doherty (1987), An advanced system for measurement of transionospheric radio propagation effects using GPS signals, report, Air Force Geophys. Lab., Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass.
Bishop, G. J., J. A. Klobuchar, S. Basu, J. R. Clynch, D. S. Coco, and C. Coker (1990), Measurements of transionospheric effects using signals from GPS, in The Effect of the Ionosphere on Radio Wave Signals and System Performance, pp. 470–480, Nav. Res. Lab., Washington, D. C. (Available from Natl. Tech. Inf. Serv., Springfield, Va.)
Bishop, G. J., D. S. Coco, and C. Coker (1991), Variations in ionospheric range error with GPS look direction, in Proceedings of ION GPS-91, pp. 1045–1054, Inst. of Navig., Fairfax, Va.
Bishop, G., D. Coco, P. Kappler, and E. Holland (1994), Studies and performance of a new technique for mitigation of pseudorange multipath effects in GPS ground stations, in Proceedings of the 1994 ION National Technical Meeting, pp. 231–242, Inst. of Navig., Fairfax, Va.
Clynch, J. R., D. S. Coco, and B. A. Renfro (1983), Differential Doppler measurements of the ionosphere during a solar eclipse, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.,45, 527–535.
Clynch, J., D. Coco, and C. Coker (1989), A versatile GPS ionospheric monitor: High latitude measurements of TEC and scintillation, in Proceedings of ION GPS-89, pp. 445–450, Inst. of Navig., Fairfax, Va.
Coco, D. (1991), GPS: Satellites of opportunity for ionospheric monitoring (1991), GPS World, 2(9), 47–50.
Coco, D., C. Coker, and J. Clynch (1990), Mitigation of ionospheric effects for single frequency GPS users, in Proceedings of ION GPS-90, pp. 169–173, Inst. of Navig., Fairfax, Va.
Coco, D. S., C. E. Coker, S. R. Dahlke, and J. R. Clynch (1991), Variability of GPS satellite differential group delay biases, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Syst., 27(6), 931–938.
Coco, D., C. Coker, and G. Bishop (1993), A real-time GPS ionospheric
monitor system, in Proceedings of the 1993 Ionospheric Effects Symposium, edited by J. M. Goodman et al., pp. 219–227, Nav. Res. Lab., Washington, D. C.
Coker, C., R. D. Hunsucker, and G. Lott (1995), Detection of auroral activity using GPS satellites, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(23), 3259–3262.
Coker, C., D. S. Coco and T. L. Gaussiran II (1996), Emerging Capabilities for GPS as an Ionospheric Sensor,Proceedings of the 1996 Ionospheric
Effects Symposium, pp. 391–387, Ionospheric Effects Symposium, Alexandria, VA
Coster, A. J., and E. M. Gaposchkin (1989), Use of GPS pseudo-range and phase data for measurement of ionospheric and tropospheric refraction, in Proceedings of the ION GPS-89 Conference, pp. 439–443, Inst. of Navig., Fairfax, Va.
Coster, A. J., E. M. Gaposchkin, L. E. Thornton, M. Buonsanto, and D. Tetenbaum (1990), Comparison of GPS and incoherent scatter measurements of the total electron content, in The Effect of the Ionosphere on Radiowave Signals and System Performance, edited by John M. Goodman et al., pp. 460–469. (Available from Natl. Tech. Inf. Serv., Springfield, Va.)
Coster, A. J., E. M. Gaposchkin, and L. E. Thornton (1992), Real-time ionospheric monitoring system using GPS, Navigation, 39(2), 191–204.
Coster, A. J., J. C. Foster, P. J. Erickson, and F. J. Rich (2001), Regional GPS mapping of storm enhanced density during the 15–16 July 2000 geomagnetic storm, in Proceedings of ION GPS 2001, pp. 2532–2539, Inst. of Navig., Fairfax, Va.
Doherty, P., E. Raffi, J. Klobuchar, and M. B. El-Arini (1994), Statistics of time rate of change of ionospheric range delay, in Proceedings of the ION GPS-94, pp. 1589–1598, Inst. of Navig., Fairfax, Va.
Feltens, J., and S. Schaer (1998), IGS products for the ionosphere, in IGS Workshop Proceedings: 1998 Analysis Center Workshop, edited by J. M. Dow et al., pp. 225–232, Eur. Space Oper. Cent., Darmstadt, Germany.
Foster, J. C. (1993), Storm-time plasma transport at middle and high latitudes, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 1675–1689.
Foster, J. C., P. J. Erickson, A. J. Coster, J. Goldstein, and F. J. Rich (2002), Ionospheric signatures of plasmaspheric tails, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(13), 1623, doi:10.1029/2002GL015067.
Fuller-Rowell, T. (2005), USTEC: A new product from the Space Environment Center characterizing the ionospheric total electron content, GPS Solutions, 9(3), 236–239.
Gaposchkin, E. M., and A. J. Coster (1993), GPS L1-L2 bias determination, Tech. Rep. 971, Lincoln Lab., Mass. Inst. of Technol., Cambridge.
Gurtner, W., G. Mader, and D. MacArthur (1989), A common exchange format for GPS data, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Geodetic Symposium on Satellite Systems, March 13–17, 1989, Phys. Sci. Lab., N. M. State Univ., Las Cruces.
Hajj, G. A., and L. J. Romans (1998), Ionospheric electron density profiles obtained with the Global Positioning System: Results from the GPS/MET experiment, Radio Sci., 33, 175–190.
Hajj, G. A., R. Ibanez-Meir, E. R. Kursiniski, and L. J. Romans (1994), Imaging the ionosphere with the Global Positioning System, Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol., 5, 174–184.
Jakowski, N., A. Wehrenpfennig, S. Heise, C. Reigber, H. Lühr, L. Grunwaldt, and T. K. Meehan (2002), GPS radio occultation measurements of the ionosphere from CHAMP: Early results, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(10), 1457, doi:10.1029/2001GL014364.
Klobuchar, J. A. (1985), Ionospheric time delay effects on Earth-space propagation, in Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Environment, edited by A. S. Jursa, chap. 10.8, pp. 10-84–10-88, U.S. Air Force, Washington, D. C.
Klobuchar, J. A. (1991), Ionospheric effects on GPS, GPS World, 2(4), 48–51.
Klobuchar, J. A., D. N. Anderson, G. J. Bishop, and P. H. Doherty (1986), Measurements of trans-ionospheric propagation parameters in the polar cap ionosphere, in Proceedings of the International Beacon Satellite Symposium, URSI/COSPAR, Part 1, edited by A. Tauriainen, pp. 59–67, Univ. of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
Komjathy, A. (1997), Global ionospheric total electron content mapping using the Global Positioning System, Ph.D. dissertation, Tech. Rep. 188, 248 pp., Dep. of Geod. and Geomatics Eng., Univ. of N. B., Fredericton, N. B., Canada.
Komjathy, A., and R. B. Langley (1996), An assessment of predicted and measured ionospheric total electron content using a regional GPS network, in Proceedings of the National Technical Meeting of the Institute of Navigation, pp. 615–624, Inst. of Navig., Fairfax, Va.
Komjathy, A., L. Sparks, B. Wilson, and A. J. Mannucci (2005), Automated daily processing of more than 1000 ground-based GPS receivers to study intense ionospheric storms, Radio Sci., 40, RS6006, doi:10.1029/2005RS003279.
Komjathy, A., B. Wilson, V. Akopian, X. Pi, B. Iijima and A. J. Mannucci (2007), JPL/USC GAIM: On the impact of using COSMIC and ground-based GPS measurements to estimate ionospheric parameters, paper presented at the Second FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC Data Users Workshop, Univ. Corp. for Atmos. Res., Boulder, Colo., 22–24 Oct. (Available at http://www.cosmic.ucar.edu/oct2007workshop/pdf/komjathy_24.pdf)
Lanyi, G. E., and T. Roth (1988), A comparison of mapped and measured total ionospheric electron content using Global Positioning System and beacon satellite observations, Radio Sci., 23, 483–492.
MacDoran, P. F. (1979), SERIES: Satellite emission range inferred Earth surveying, SERIES-GPS geodetic system, Bull. Geod., 53, 11.
Mannucci, A. J., B. D. Wilson, and C. D. Edwards (1993), A new method for monitoring the Earth's ionospheric total electron content using the GPS global network, in Proceedings of the Institute of Navigation GPS-93, pp. 1323–1332, Inst. of Navig., Fairfax, Va.
Mannucci, A. J., B. D. Wilson, D. N. Yuan, C. H. Ho, U. J. Lindqwister, and T. F. Runge (1998), A global mapping technique for GPS-derived ionospheric electron content measurements, Radio Sci., 33, 565–582.
Pi, X., A. J. Mannucci, U. J. Lindqwister, and C. M. Ho (1997), Monitoring of global ionospheric irregularities using he worldwide GPS network, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 2283–2286.
Rideout, W., and A. Coster (2006), Automated GPS processing for global total electron content data, GPS Solutions, 10(3), 219–228, doi:10.1007/s10291-006-0029-5.
Rius, A., G. Ruffini, and A. Romeo (1998), Analysis of ionospheric electron-density distribution from GPS/MET occultations, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 36(2), 383–394.
Royden, H. N., R. B. Miller, and L. A. Buennagel (1984), Comparison NAVSTAR satellite L band ionospheric calibrations with Faraday rotation measurements, Radio Sci., 19, 798–804.
Sardón, E., A. Rius, and N. Zarraoa (1994), Estimation of the transmitter and receiver differential biases and the ionospheric total electron content from Global Positioning System observations, Radio Sci., 29, 577–586.
Sokolovskiy, S., W. Schreiner, C. Rockern, and D. Hunt (2002), Detection of high-altitude ionospheric irregularities with GPS/MET, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(3), 1033, doi:10.1029/2001GL013398.
Van Dierendonck, A. J., J. A. Klobuchar, and Q. Hua (1993), Ionospheric scintillation monitoring using commercial single frequency C/A code receivers, in Proceedings of the Institute of Navigation GPS-93, pp. 1333–1342, Inst. of Navig., Fairfax, Va.
Wanninger, L. (1993), Effects of the equatorial ionosphere on GPS, GPS World, 4(7) 49–54.
Ware, R., et al. (1996), GPS sounding of the atmosphere from low Earth orbit: Preliminary results, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 19–40.
Wilson, B. D., and A. J. Mannucci (1993), Instrumental biases in ionospheric measurements derived from GPS data, in Proceedings of the Institute of Navigation GPS-93, pp. 1343–1351, Inst. of Navig., Fairfax, Va.
Wilson, B. D., A. J. Mannucci, C. D. Edwards, and T. Roth (1992), Global ionospheric maps using a global network of GPS receivers, paper presented at the International Beacon Satellite Symposium, Mass. Inst. of Technol., Cambridge, 6–12 July.
Wilson, B. D., A. J. Mannucci, and C. D. Edwards (1995), Subdaily Northern Hemisphere ionospheric maps using an extensive network of GPS receivers, Radio Sci., 30, 639–648.