• temperature;
  • hydrology;
  • fiber optic

[1] Raman spectra distributed temperature sensing (DTS) by fiber-optic cables has recently shown considerable promise for the measuring and monitoring of surface and near-surface hydrologic processes such as groundwater–surface water interaction, borehole circulation, snow hydrology, soil moisture studies, and land surface energy exchanges. DTS systems uniquely provide the opportunity to monitor water, air, and media temperatures in a variety of systems at much higher spatial and temporal frequencies than any previous measurement method. As these instruments were originally designed for fire and pipeline monitoring, their extension to the typical conditions encountered by hydrologists requires a working knowledge of the theory of operation, limitations, and system accuracies, as well as the practical aspects of designing either short- or long-term experiments in remote or challenging terrain. This work focuses on providing the hydrologic user with sufficient knowledge and specifications to allow sound decisions on the application and deployment of DTS systems.