Source materials for inception stage Hawaiian magmas: Pb-He isotope variations for early Kilauea

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Abstract

[1] New noble gas and radiogenic isotopic compositions are presented for tholeiitic, transitional, and alkalic rocks from the submarine Hilina region on the south flank of Kilauea, Hawaii. The 3He/4He ratios for undegassed glass and olivine separates (11–26 Ra) contrast with those of postshield and rejuvenated alkalic lavas, consistent with the alkalic and transitional basalts at Hilina corresponding to early Kilauea magmas. Most early Kilauea samples contain highly radiogenic Pb isotopes compared with other Hawaiian rocks and therefore derive from a Hawaiian plume end-member source (here referred to as the Hilina component) distinctive in that respect. Besides radiogenic Pb isotopes, the Hilina component has relatively low 3He/4He (<12 Ra) among the Hawaiian magmas. Hawaiian inception stage magmas, including Hilina, Loihi, and deep Hana Ridge (east Maui), define a linear array in 206Pb/204Pb-3He/4He isotope space, indicating that mixing between the Hilina and Loihi components (or their melts) dominates magmatism at the leading edge of the Hawaiian plume. The Hilina component's isotopic characteristics can be derived from young subduction-recycled crust or metasomatised mantle. The isotopic differences between the geographically discriminated Kea and Loa trend volcanic chains, observed in shield stage lavas, are also seen in the inception stage magmas, suggesting that proportions of melts derived from the Hilina and Loihi components were different between the Kea and Loa trend volcanoes.

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