• plasma waves

[1] ELF/VLF chorus emissions are very intense electromagnetic plasma waves that are naturally and spontaneously excited near the magnetic equatorial plane outside the plasmasphere during periods of magnetic disturbance. These emissions are believed to play an important role in the acceleration of 10 to 100 keV radiation belt electrons to MeV energies during the disturbed time periods. Spacecraft observations near the magnetic equatorial plane in the regions where chorus emissions are generated show that the chorus often appears in two distinct frequency bands, one band below fce/2 and one band above fce/2, where fce is the local electron gyrofrequency. This configuration is known as banded chorus. In the present paper we show that this type of configuration can be readily explained if it is assumed that the chorus is excited in ducts of either enhanced or depleted cold plasma density.