The enhancement of primary productivity (PPenh) in the southern East China Sea (ECS) following 16 typhoon passages was investigated using ocean color data and a primary productivity model. PPenh tended to be higher when typhoons traversed slowly with trajectories that allowed strong southerly winds to prevail over Yonaguni Island. Such long-lasting southerly winds were believed to push the Kuroshio current axis shelfward, enhancing the upwelling of nutrients, hence promoting new productivity (NP). The importance of long-lasting southerly winds as a proxy for physical perturbations underlying PPenh was expressed by an empirical equation by which 88% of PPenh variation could be explained. Applying this equation, we assessed that typhoon passages accounted for a minimum of 0.6–11.8% of the ECS summer–fall NP, suggesting that typhoon passage over the southern ECS is an important phenomenon supporting NP in the ECS.