Climate and Dynamics
Shift of peak in summer monsoon rainfall over Korea and its association with El Niño–Southern Oscillation
Article first published online: 28 JAN 2010
Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012)
Volume 115, Issue D2, 27 January 2010
How to Cite
2010), Shift of peak in summer monsoon rainfall over Korea and its association with El Niño–Southern Oscillation, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D02111, doi:10.1029/2009JD011717., , , and (
- Issue published online: 28 JAN 2010
- Article first published online: 28 JAN 2010
- Manuscript Accepted: 15 SEP 2009
- Manuscript Revised: 30 AUG 2009
- Manuscript Received: 6 JAN 2009
- shifting peak;
 The annual cycle of rainfall over the Korean Peninsula is marked by two peaks: one during July and the other during August. Since the mid-1970s, the maximum rainfall over the Korean Peninsula has shifted from July to August. This shift in rainfall peak was caused by a significant increase of August rainfall after the mid-1970s. The basic reason for this shift has been traced to a change in teleconnection between El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and August rainfall. The relationship between August rainfall over Korea and ENSO changed from 1954–1975 (PI) to 1976–2002 (PII). The variability of August rainfall was significantly associated with sea surface temperature (SST) variation over the eastern equatorial Pacific during PI, but this relationship is absent during the PII period. In El Niño years during PI, low-level westerly and southerly wind anomalies are dominant around the East China Sea, which relates to strong August rainfall. In La Niña years during PI, easterly and northerly wind anomalies are dominant. During the PII period, however, westerly and southerly wind anomalies around the East China Sea were responsible for the high August rainfall over the East Asian region, even though La Niña SST conditions were in effect over the eastern Pacific.