Climate and Dynamics
Influence of wintertime large-scale circulation on the explosively developing cyclones over the western North Pacific and their downstream effects
Article first published online: 15 JUL 2009
Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012)
Volume 114, Issue D13, 16 July 2009
How to Cite
2009), Influence of wintertime large-scale circulation on the explosively developing cyclones over the western North Pacific and their downstream effects, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D13110, doi:10.1029/2009JD011820., and (
- Issue published online: 15 JUL 2009
- Article first published online: 15 JUL 2009
- Manuscript Accepted: 12 MAY 2009
- Manuscript Revised: 29 APR 2009
- Manuscript Received: 27 JAN 2009
- extratropical cyclone;
- East Asian winter monsoon;
 The relationships between large-scale wintertime circulation and extratropical cyclones that develop explosively (the so-called bomb cyclones) over the western North Pacific are investigated using Japanese long-term reanalysis project data. On a monthly basis, the East Asian winter monsoon variability strongly modulates the bomb cyclone activity in terms of its geographical distribution. When the monsoon is strong, the bomb cyclone activity tends to concentrate in the vicinity of the Kuroshio Current and the Kuroshio Extension near Japan, while when the monsoon is weak, it disperses over the broader areas. The enhancement of the monsoon increases the heat and moisture supply from warm currents, facilitating unstable conditions within the atmospheric boundary layer and intensifying baroclinicity in the lower troposphere. These factors are believed to play a role in inducing bomb cyclones, particularly along the warm currents. On submonthly timescales, the stationary Rossby wave propagation along the South Asian waveguide serves as a prominent trigger for the rapid reinforcement of synoptic-scale disturbances around Japan. When a pronounced bomb cyclone comes to its mature stage northeast of Japan, it is capable of exciting stationary Rossby waves downstream from the Asian jet exit region as vorticity forcing. The stationary wave packets developing southeastward across the North Pacific Ocean basin induce surface cyclogenesis in the vicinity of the Hawaiian Islands by leading to the equatorward advection of higher potential vorticity from the midlatitudes, bringing about the occurrence of kona storms, which cause weather hazards in Hawaii.