• solar power satellite;
  • ponderomotive effects on UHF

[1] In 1992 a rocket was launched into a high-power radio beam to study its interaction with the ionosphere. The frequency of the beam, 5.1 MHz, was optimized for such interactions since the frequency used was below the maximum plasma frequency and hence was reflected in a manner that optimized such an interaction. Fortuitously, the rocket passed quite close to the diagnostic Arecibo UHF (430 MHz) radar beam and remarkably, as reported here, we find that there was an interaction as well with the UHF beam. In retrospect, however, we see that the energy density of the UHF radar was more than an order of magnitude higher than the plasma energy density. And, although the quiver velocity of the electrons in the beam is only 4% of their thermal speed, the ponderomotive force is quite a bit larger than the other forces in the medium. This force creates a drift velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field at the beam edge which, we show, is unstable to the drift wave instability and is likely to create the heated ions and fluctuating electric field and plasma density we observe. These results suggest that any transmission of high-power radio waves from a solar power satellite to the ground will interact with the ionosphere in a manner that must be studied before such an expensive project is initiated.