Africa exhibits some of the most spectacular volcanic and tectonic features on Earth. Hazards associated with these features include volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and carbon dioxide (CO2) degassing. For example, in 2002 an eruption destroyed 25% of the city of Goma, Congo, and forced 500,000 people to evacuate. In 1986, hundreds died as a result of the CO2 degassing at Lake Nyos, Cameroon. In Tanzania in 2007, explosive activity of the carbonatite volcano Ol Doinyo Lengai forced the evacuation of the region. From the 1980s to the present, Nyamuragira (Congo) had numerous eruptions, each with sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions exceeding 1 million tons. Large rift-related fault systems that cross national boundaries challenge efforts for integrated seismic hazard evaluations. These observations highlight the need for basic and hazards-related research in East Africa.