Detection of Arctic Ocean tides using interferometric GNSS-R signals



[1] This paper evaluates the usage of reflected GPS signals for Earth observations to study changes of sea level and sea-ice in remote sensing. In a coastal setup, ∼670 m above Disko Bay (Greenland), signals with different carriers L1 and L2 were recorded. A method is presented that analyses the interferometric phase between the reflected and the direct signals and derives the height of the reflecting surface. The analysis includes a ray tracing and an estimation of signal coherence. It is shown that coherent reflections are related to sea-ice coverage. Absolute heights are derived with a time interval of ∼30 min. The altimetric results show semidiurnal tides that are validated using the AODTM-5 tide model. The residual height has a mean of 9.7 cm for L1 and 22.9 cm for L2. The dispersion is not significant but a significant tropospheric bias is detected with an error of up to 20 cm.