Climate and Dynamics
A modeling study of the interaction between the Atlantic Warm Pool, the tropical Atlantic easterlies, and the Lesser Antilles
Article first published online: 20 APR 2011
Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012)
Volume 116, Issue D21, 16 November 2011
How to Cite
2011), A modeling study of the interaction between the Atlantic Warm Pool, the tropical Atlantic easterlies, and the Lesser Antilles, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D00Q02, doi:10.1029/2010JD015260., , and (
- Issue published online: 20 APR 2011
- Article first published online: 20 APR 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 9 FEB 2011
- Manuscript Revised: 31 JAN 2011
- Manuscript Received: 27 OCT 2010
- climate model;
- warm pool;
 The European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts Reanalysis-40 and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/Department of Energy reanalyses are downscaled over the eastern Caribbean and Lesser Antilles using the NCEP-Scripps Regional Spectral Model for Augusts when the Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP) area is the most anomalous. The simulations show a two-way influence between the Lesser Antilles and the AWP: the islands modulate the regional atmospheric circulation, and AWP variations modulate the interannual variabilities of the islands. The Lesser Antilles introduce diurnal variations and drag to the easterlies. The presence of the islands modulates the prevalent easterlies as a result of the daytime heating of the islands and the consequent boundary layer expansion. The modulations are sensitive to the islands' size and topography. Small and flat islands act as thermal plumes, but the modulations of large and hilly islands are during the daytime as their boundary layer expands. The manifestation of the atmospheric response to the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over the islands is sensitive to the island orography. For most islands, the atmospheric response to the SST anomalies is reflected only during the daytime. For all one-grid-point islands and Antigua, nighttime and dawn minimum temperatures are modulated to the same degree as the daytime maximum. For island rainfall, downscaling reduces the gross overestimations of rainfall in the reanalyses. However, our downscaling results suggest that there is room for improvement in simulating the marine surface diurnal cycle.