Earth impedance model for through-the-earth communication applications with electrodes
Article first published online: 9 DEC 2010
Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.
Volume 45, Issue 6, December 2010
How to Cite
2010), Earth impedance model for through-the-earth communication applications with electrodes, Radio Sci., 45, RS6015, doi:10.1029/2010RS004406., , , , , and (
- Issue published online: 9 DEC 2010
- Article first published online: 9 DEC 2010
- Manuscript Accepted: 16 SEP 2010
- Manuscript Revised: 9 AUG 2010
- Manuscript Received: 5 APR 2010
 Through-the-earth (TTE) communications are relevant in applications such as caving, tunnel and cave rescue, mining, and subsurface radiolocation. The majority of the TTE communication systems use ground electrodes as load antenna. Wires, electrode contact, and earth impedances are the major contributors to the impedance observed by the transmitter. In this paper, state-of-art models found in the literature are reviewed, and an improved method to measure the earth impedance is presented. The paper also proposes an optimal circuit model for earth impedance between electrodes as a function of frequency, as a consequence of the particular conditions of the application. The model is validated with measurements for different soil conditions, showing a good agreement between empirical data and the simulation results.