Nighttime sporadic E measurements on an oblique path along the midlatitude trough
Article first published online: 3 MAR 2011
Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
Volume 46, Issue 2, April 2011
How to Cite
2011), Nighttime sporadic E measurements on an oblique path along the midlatitude trough, Radio Sci., 46, RS2002, doi:10.1029/2010RS004507., and (
- Issue published online: 3 MAR 2011
- Article first published online: 3 MAR 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 28 DEC 2010
- Manuscript Revised: 7 DEC 2010
- Manuscript Received: 25 AUG 2010
- sporadic E;
- midlatitude trough
 Observations of nighttime sporadic E (Es) made within the HF band on a 1400 km path that lies approximately along the midlatitude trough are presented. Although the probability of occurrence of Es (PEs) is generally below that predicted by the ITU-R model, a significant increase in PEs is found when Kp ≥ 6. The signal parameters (azimuth, elevation, and Doppler spreads) also increase for high values of Kp. This behavior is consistent with the character of the propagation changing from midlatitude to auroral as the polar cap expands and the trough moves equatorward with increasing Kp.