• Enceladus;
  • Saturn satellite

[1] Enceladus as an Active Moon; Bern, Switzerland, 14–18 June 2010; In commemoration of the fifth anniversary of the discovery of Enceladus's plumes, a group of about 2 dozen specialists gathered at the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Switzerland ( with the goal of advancing understanding of the nature of Enceladus and its unusual phenomena. Speakers at the meeting noted that Enceladus is much more exciting than even their wildest expectations for it more than 20 years ago when the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn was conceived, in the 1980s, several years after the Voyager flybys. Cassini revealed the surprising activity of the icy moon Enceladus, which is ejecting plumes of water vapor and ice grains from its anomalously warm south polar region. During the flyby of Enceladus on 17 February 2005, the Cassini magnetometer observed magnetic effects caused by Enceladus's plumes. Alerted by these stunning measurements, the Cassini investigators focused in on Enceladus during subsequent flybys and obtained the presently known facts about the plumes and the large south polar thermal anomaly.