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Keywords:

  • paleoclimate;
  • variability;
  • ENSO;
  • Arctic

[1] There has been some debate as to whether global warming could lead to a permanent El Niño state rather than a periodically varying El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which occurs now. It has also been suggested that ice-free Arctic summers could affect high-latitude and midlatitude circulation patterns and climate variability. Now sediment records from the Arctic suggest that even as climate warms, the variability of ENSO will continue. Davies et al. analyzed the first annually resolved sediment core spanning 1000 years about 70 million years ago during the Late Cretaceous. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2010GL046151, 2011)