• dendrochronology;
  • paleoclimate;
  • NAO;
  • ENSO;
  • Laki;
  • volcanism

[1] In June 1783 the Laki volcano in Iceland began to erupt and continued erupting for months, causing a major environmental disaster. The eruption spewed out toxic sulfuric acid aerosols, which spread over northern latitudes and caused thousands of deaths. That summer, there were heat waves, widespread famines, crop failures, and livestock losses. During the following winter, temperatures in Europe were about 2°C below average for the late 1700s; the winter was also one of the most severe of the past 500 years in eastern North America. The Laki eruption has been blamed for the anomalously cold winter of 1783–1784. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL046696, 2011)