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ggge2084-sup-0002-fs01.jpgimage/pjpeg344KFigure S1. Model results for the case without subduction and without chemical anomalies and with constant viscosity 1021 Pas beneath the lithosphere.
ggge2084-sup-0003-fs02.jpgimage/pjpeg396KFigure S2. Distribution of slabs, plumes, and “domes” plotted as in Figure 5 at 40 Ma, but for a model case with prescribed plate motions as a surface boundary condition.
ggge2084-sup-0004-fs03.jpgimage/pjpeg389KFigure S3. As in Figure S2 but with plate rotations of all plates in the Pacific basin before 150 Ma modified by adding a component 0.4°/Ma around an axis parallel to the spin axis, thus adding an eastward component of plate motions and increasing the amount of convergence in the eastern Pacific and decreasing the amount in the western Pacific.

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