Typical properties of rising and falling tone chorus waves



[1] Chorus waves, which have received intense attention recently due to their significant role in radiation belt electron dynamics, frequently exhibit rising and falling tones. Lower-band chorus waves, observed using THEMIS wave burst data, are analyzed to obtain the typical properties of either class of chorus emissions. Our results show that rising tones are more likely to be quasi field-aligned, whereas falling tones are typically very oblique, close to the resonance cone. Furthermore, rising tones occur significantly more often than falling tones, and magnetic amplitudes of rising tones are generally much larger than those of falling tones. We also show the preferential regions of rising and falling tones dependent on MLT and magnetic latitude. Our new findings suggest that two separate mechanisms may be responsible for the generation and nonlinear evolution of rising and falling tone chorus.