Evidence that ice forms primarily in supercooled liquid clouds at temperatures > −27°C



[1] Using 4 years of radar and lidar observations of layer clouds from the Chilbolton Observatory in the UK, we show that almost all (95%) ice particles formed at temperatures >−20°C appear to originate from supercooled liquid clouds. At colder temperatures, there is a monotonic decline in the fraction of liquid-topped ice clouds: 50% at −27°C, falling to zero at −37°C (where homogeneous freezing of water droplets occurs). This strongly suggests that deposition nucleation plays a relatively minor role in the initiation of ice in mid-level clouds. It also means that the initial growth of the ice particles occurs predominantly within a liquid cloud, a situation which promotes rapid production of precipitation via the Bergeron-Findeison mechanism.